[*] [-] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/22/22 11:47am
Tips from Bourns on using trimming potentiometers. Link here (PDF) Potentiometers normally have a small region at the extreme ends of the adjustment range where the output is irregular. This can be seen when there is a sudden drop to essentially zero resistance. Alternatively, the change in output will stop at some small residual value of resistance, depending on the design of the trimmer. Although this unstable region is usually less than 1 % or 2 % of the total range of adjustment, it is important to remember to make allowances for avoiding it in your applications.

[Category: app notes, app note, Bourns, trimpots]

[*] [-] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/22/22 7:17am
App note from Precision Microdrives experimenting on which is the best method to waterproof their vibration motors. Link here We have mentioned some interesting vibration motor applications which may benefit from being waterproof or water resistant. For example, performance indicators for athletes, or stroke rehabilitation gloves would require regular cleaning. Naturally, the most convenient method for cleaning clothes and garments would be through a washing machine, and removing several vibration motors to do so, isn’t particularly pragmatic. So we decided to look at some of our vibration motors and see if it would be possible to make them waterproof using fairly simple and easily implemented methods. This means that this Application Bulletin will differ slightly from our normal instalments which are full of industry best practices and advice. Instead, this is a more a report of an experimental/investigative process, in which we conclude with tips from our experiences, should you wish to try it yourself.

[Category: app notes, app note, Precision Mircodrives, vibration motors, waterproofing]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/15/22 7:30am
App note from Vishay about their resistors with special wire termination which are used in automotive application such as sensors for engine knock , crankshaft and liquid level. Link here (PDF) As the electronic contents in automobiles are growing, there is increasing demand of electronic assemblies, such as sensors, to meet specific application requirements. The overall sensor market is driven by an increased need for safety, reliability, efficiency, comfort, and protection from harsh environment. Vishay Draloric / Beyschlag offers the MBA/SMA 0204 metal film resistors with special wire terminations, which can be either welded or soldered. Traditionally, the resistors are used on the PCB. However, sensor applications require welding or soldering of resistors on lead frames. The special termination wire material includes coppered steel (FeCu), nickel (Ni), and coppered silver (CuAg). These resistors also exhibit superior TCR for such under the hood (high temperature) applications, excellent long term stability under harsh operating conditions, mechanical robustness in terms of high tensile strength, and high electrical conductivity of the special wires.

[Category: app notes, app note, automotive, sensors, vishay]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/8/22 11:00am
Tech note from FTDI about adapting their older FTDI USB 2.0 chip on new Type-C USB connectors. Link here (PDF) Type-C USB connectors are often associated with USB power delivery specification where power negotiation may result in power being supplied from the host or the device. Original USB 2.0 FTDI hardware is not designed to include power delivery, as our ICs always get power from the USB Host. These include the following ICs: FT232R/FT245R FT-X FT232H/FT2232H/FT4232H FT260 FT4222H However, it’s possible to design original USB 2.0 FTDI hardware with Type-C USB connectors and this document shows how it can be implemented.

[Category: app notes, app note, FTDI, USB Type C]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/8/22 7:00am
More buck regulator designs and other uses discuss in this app note from Renesas. Link here (PDF) One of the most popular switching regulator topologies is the buck or step-down converter. The buck regulator IC typically employs a built-in controller and integrated FETs. Power supply engineers use them for step-down conversion. Nevertheless, they can also be used to create many other designs to meet various applications needs, such as inverting power supplies, bipolar power supplies, and isolated power supplies with single or multiple isolated voltage rails.

[Category: app notes, app note, buck converter, Renesas]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 4/24/22 11:00am
White paper from Renesas on using BFEs GPIO to control or monitor further battery status. Link here (PDF) In an MCU plus battery front end (BFE) controlled battery pack, GPIOs may operate as an alternate protection FET control path where low-side FETs are preferred. Use cases include extending the upper voltage range of battery IC to higher voltages by shutting down the high-side charge pumps and repurposing a high-side solution to a low-side solution with minimal BOM changes. A solution with the ISL94216 device acts as a model for a low-side GPIO controlled solution; however, in this white paper, the techniques and principles for low-side GPIO control generally apply to battery ICs with GPIOs (such as the ISL94216) and for battery pack MCUs with GPIOs (such as the RL78). The ISL94216 BFE simplifies the adoption of low-side control considerably by offering bit settings to swap the control logic from the high-side FET pins to the built-in GPIOs.

[Category: app notes, app note, battery management, Renesas]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 4/24/22 7:00am
App note on Renesas pulse oximeter basics and its applications. Link here (PDF) The Renesas OB1203 pulse oximeter module optically detects heart rate and blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). Respiratory rate and other health information that can be inferred from the optical pulse waveform (PPG) signal. The OB1203 also features a proximity sensor and ambient light color sensor. A unique feature is OB1203’s 690nm far red LED which allows for use of IR-transmissive inks to hide the sensor under a cover glass, as is typical for proximity sensors. The OB1203 module is a 4.2×2×1.2 mm OSIP (optical system in package) allowing for very compact industrial designs using the reflective PPG sensing mode.

[Category: app notes, app note, Pulse Oximeter, Renesas]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 4/17/22 11:00am
Renesas app note on their low-voltage precision op-amps ISL28x3x measuring current implementation. Link here (PDF) Sensing and controlling current flow is a fundamental requirement in electronics systems. This application note explains the design of low-side and high-side current sensing circuits using the ISL28x3x family of low-voltage precision op-amps in combination with current sense resistors.

[Category: app notes, app note, Current sense, op-amp, Renesas]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 4/10/22 11:00am
Reference app note from Abracon on all standard frequencies. Link here (PDF)

[Category: app notes, app note, frequencies, reference]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 4/10/22 8:00am
App note from IXYS on their battery operated surge voltage and inrush current protection circuit implementation. Link here (PDF) Primary concerns with battery-operated devices include battery protection from inrush and short circuit currents caused by connected load, and load protection from voltage spikes when battery load dump occurs, which may cause significant voltage stress on electronic devices sharing the same battery as high current consumers. Digital control allows designers to significantly simplify the design of protection devices, providing greater flexibility than hardware-only solutions. The device described in this application note is an example of implementing Zilog’s Z8F3281 microcontroller in power control. This design, is intended to protect the battery from the inrush current and short circuitry at the load, and protect the load from voltage spikes from the battery, which are usually generated by fast battery load changing.

[Category: app notes, app note, battery protection, inrush current, IXYS]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 4/3/22 11:00am
App note from IXYS on their new modified structure IGBT that have built-in reverse current blocking. Link here (PDF) A new IGBT has been developed, providing reverse blocking capability. This feature is needed in various applications, such as in current source inverters, resonant circuits, bidirectional switches or matrix converters. This paper presents technology of the monolithic chip and its operational behaviour, measured with first samples in typical circuits.

[Category: app notes, app note, IGBT, IXYS]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 3/27/22 11:00am
Fluke article on Hall Effect used on clamp meters. Link here Hall Effect clamp meters can measure both ac and dc current up to the kilohertz (1000 Hz) range. Like current transformer types, Hall Effect clamp meters use rigid iron jaws to concentrate the magnetic field that encircles the conductor being measured. Unlike current transformer clamp meters, the jaws are not wrapped by copper wires. Instead, the magnetic field generated by the conductor is focused across one or more gaps in the core after the jaws are clamped around the conductor. Notice the point where the jaw tips of a Hall Effect clamp meter meet. A gap exists where the jaw tips of a Hall Effect clamp meter meet, creating an air pocket that the magnetic field (aka magnetic flux) must jump. This gap limits the magnetic flux so that the core cannot saturate. In contrast, the jaws of an ac-only current transformer clamp are flush when closed. When opened, the tips of the jaws show bare metal core faces. In that gap, covered by thin plastic molding, is a semiconductor known as a Hall Effect sensor—a transducer that varies its output voltage when responding to magnetic fields, in this case the magnetic field of the conductor or wire being measured. Its purpose is to measure magnetic flux directly. The output voltage from the sensor then amplified and scaled to represent the current flowing through the conductor that lies inside the jaws of the clamp.

[Category: app notes, app note, Fluke, hall-effect]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 3/27/22 7:00am
Flukes tips on how to clean your test tools. Link can be found here. Reopening the world in the wake of a pandemic brings new health and safety concerns. Much of the emphasis has been on personal hygiene, such as hand washing, social distancing, and face covering. But as industries begin to open, a new normal awaits them where personal hygiene must extend to shared work surfaces. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends regular cleaning of your frequently touched surfaces. Maintenance technicians, electricians, and others who share tools need to understand and follow safe cleaning and sanitization procedures. This includes test tools, such as multimeters and electrical testers, as well as personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves and shields.

[Category: app notes, app note, cleaning, Fluke, test instrument]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 3/20/22 11:00am
App note from Diodes Incorporated on the uses of load switches. Link here (PDF) Integrated load switches are electronic switches used in systems to turn power rails on and off, similar to a relay or a MOSFET. Integrated load switches provide many benefits, including protection features that are too difficult or complex to implement with discrete components.

[Category: app notes, app note, diodes incorporated, load switch]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 3/20/22 7:44am
White paper from Lumileds on efficient heat sink for LED illumination. Link here (PDF) LEDs are very small light sources that offer great freedom in design for lighting solutions. Within the freedom of an industrial product design, however, one has to make sure that the operating conditions of the LED stays within the ranges as defined in the datasheets on current and temperature, in order to ensure a good application lifetime.

[Category: app notes, app note, led lighting, Lumileds]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 3/13/22 11:00am
App note from Murata about matching the measured voltage to the input of a digital meter. Link here (PDF) It is oftentimes necessary to attenuate “large” input signals down to a level that more closely matches the input range of a selected meter. For example, suppose the signal to be measured is 19 Volts, and the input voltage range of the available meter is 2 Volts (the preferred model for any attenuation circuit). Obviously, the “raw” input signal voltage is much too high for a ± 2V meter to measure directly and must fi rst be attenuated.

[Category: app notes, app note, digital meters, Murata]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 3/13/22 7:00am
Basics of current loop App note from Murata, discussing the basic theory of the 4-20mA current loop operation. Link here (PDF) The 4-20mA current loop is a common method of transmitting sensor information in many industrial process-monitoring applications. A sensor is a device used to measure physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, speed, liquid flow rates, etc. Transmitting sensor information via a current loop is particularly useful when the information has to be sent to a remote location over long distances (1000 feet, or more). The loop’s operation is straightforward: a sensor’s output voltage is first converted to a proportional current, with 4mA normally representing the sensor’s zero-level output, and 20mA representing the sensor’s full-scale output. Then, a receiver at the remote end converts the 4-20mA current back into a voltage which in turn can be further processed by a computer or display module.

[Category: app notes, app note, digital meters, Murata, sensors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 3/6/22 6:12am
App note about conductive plastic used on motion transducers from Vishay. Link here (PDF) The polymer film track has a conductive plastic paste laid upon it. This paste includes an inert filler of carbon black which constitutes the basis of Vishay SFERNICE’s technology for manufacturing precision potentiometers. The resistive track obtained can be used: • inside a cylindrical housing for making a rotational potentiometer • on a flat support when manufacturing a linear motion transducer. This method of producing the plastic film creates a resistive track which is exceptionally uniform in its resistivity and which allows excellent results regarding linearity.

[Category: app notes, app note, Potentiometers, transducers, vishay]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 2/27/22 10:00am
Enhancing the performance of power op amps discussed in this app note from Apex Microtechnology. Link here (PDF) Power op amps are attractive because they reduce circuit design time enormously. Assembly costs of the power op amp design amount to a fraction of the discrete counterpart due to vastly reduced parts count. Careful attention to the power aspects of a circuit is required, as the well known op amp design rules based on low power devices. The objectives are to maximize reliability plus optimize output power and system efficiency. This application note points out some optimizing techniques and some areas to be especially watchful.

[Category: app notes, apex microtechnology, app note, op-amp]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 2/27/22 6:00am
App note on FTDIs FT2232 USB bridge migration, with full detailed list of capabilities on the newer FT2232H. PDF link can be found here This Application Note details the differences between the FT2232D and FT2232H to help customers design with FT2232H as this newer, high speed USB device has better performance.

[Category: app notes, app note, FT2232, FTDI, USB bridge]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 2/20/22 7:03am
App note from International Rectifier on how to optimize the maximum current handling of power FETs. Link here (PDF) There is a trend within the discrete power component industry of late to increase the dc current rating for low on-resistance devices to levels that historically have not been seen. This trend has accelerated as power transistor manufacturers introduce higher current / lower voltage designs. Mature JEDEC package designs, originally intended decades ago for dc currents on the order of 10’s of Amperes are now emerging as capable of 100’s of Amps. Is this due to some significant improvement in package materials / design or is this all smoke and mirrors? The answer is a little of both.

[Category: app notes, app note, International Rectifier, MOSFET]

As of 5/22/22 2:28pm. Last new 5/22/22 12:02pm.

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