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[l] at 1/20/22 12:50pm
I got this card in the mail a couple of days ago. Bob is actually a high-school (and college) friend who Ive kept in touch with over the years. Its nice to have friends like Bob. I sent Bob one of my QSL cards noting that I owe a beer or a coffee next time that I get to see him in person. One takeaway from this is that its OK to let people know youre a ham. You never know when theyll send you cool things like these stamps or get interested in the hobby themselves. The post Its nice to have friends appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Everything Else, stamps]

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[l] at 1/19/22 8:54am
One of the reasons I like the subreddit /r/amateurradio are the funny things that are posted to it. Here are three of the latest. This was posted with the headline, Those ReCaptchas are getting out of hand ;-). I thought this one was really funny, too. Im not a Baofeng hater, but you gotta admit this is amusing. Need to hoist an antenna? Most hams lack this simple tool from HamRadio The post Funny stuff from /r/amateurradio appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Just for Fun, Baofeng, captcha]

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[l] at 1/18/22 7:54pm
Heres the third chapter from the 2022 version of the No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide.Dan Frequency, wavelength, and the electromagnetic spectrum Radio waves are what amateur radio is all about. Amateur radio operators generate them and send them off into space. Then, we capture them and demodulate them. Radio waves are also called electromagnetic waves because they consist of both an electric field and a magnetic field. The two fields are at right angles to one another as they travel through space. T3B03 What are the two components of a radio wave? A. Impedance and reactance B. Voltage and current C. Electric and magnetic fields D. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation T3B01 What is the relationship between the electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave? A. They travel at different speeds B. They are in parallel C. They revolve in opposite directions D. They are at right angles All electromagnetic waves, including radio waves, travel at the speed of light, or 300 million meters per second. T3B04 What is the velocity of a radio wave traveling through free space? A. Speed of light B. Speed of sound C. Speed inversely proportional to its wavelength D. Speed that increases as the frequency increases T3B11 What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave in free space? A. 150,000 meters per second B. 300,000,000 meters per second C. 300,000,000 miles per hour D. 150,000 miles per hour An important characteristic of a radio wave is its frequency, or the number of cycles per second. As mentioned earlier, the unit of frequency is the Hertz. We abbreviate Hertz as Hz, and one Hz is one cycle per second. A characteristic of a radio wave that is related to frequency is its wavelength. A wavelength is the distance that a radio wave travels during one cycle. Because radio waves travel at the speed of light, or 300,000,000 meters per second, the wavelength is 300,000,000 divided by the frequency. To make this easier to calculate, you can divide both the speed of light and the frequency by one million. That makes the equation: wavelength (m) = 300/f (MHz) The converse of this equation is: f (MHz) = 300/wavelength (m) As you can see from the equations, the lower the frequency, the longer the wavelength, and vice versa, the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. T3B06 What is the formula for converting frequency to approximate wavelength in meters? A. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300 B. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz divided by 300 C. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in megahertz divided by 300 D. Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz T3B05 What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency? A. Wavelength gets longer as frequency increases B. Wavelength gets shorter as frequency increases C. Wavelength and frequency are unrelated D. Wavelength and frequency increase as path length increases In amateur radio, we sometimes use the frequency and sometimes the wavelength when talking about a radio signal. We use wavelength, for example, when we refer to the amateur radio bands. The 2 m amateur radio band, for example, spans 144 MHz to 148 MHz. A radio wave with a frequency of 148 MHz, would have a wavelength of 2.03 meters. T3B07 In addition to frequency, which of the following is used to identify amateur radio bands? A. The approximate wavelength in meters B. Traditional letter/number designators C. Channel numbers D. All these choices are correct For convenience, we split the entire range of radio frequencies into sub-ranges, including high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF), and ultra high frequency (UHF). T3B10 What frequency range is referred to as HF? A. 300 to 3000 MHz B. 30 to 300 MHz C. 3 to 30 MHz D. 300 to 3000 kHz T3B08 What frequency range is referred to as VHF? A. 30 kHz to 300 kHz B. 30 MHz to 300 MHz C. 300 kHz to 3000 kHz D. 300 MHz to 3000 MHz T3B09 What frequency range is referred to as UHF? A. 30 to 300 kHz B. 30 to 300 MHz C. 300 to 3000 kHz D. 300 to 3000 MHz A radio signal of any frequency is called a radio frequency, or RF, signal. T5C06 What does the abbreviation “RF” mean? A. Radio frequency signals of all types B. The resonant frequency of a tuned circuit C. The real frequency transmitted as opposed to the apparent frequency D. Reflective force in antenna transmission lines Properties of radio waves and propagation modes As amateur radio operators, we should always try to use the right frequency and the right mode when communicating. To do this, we need to know how radio signals travel from one point to another and what effect frequency, our antennas and even our location have on signal propagation. Communications at VHF and UHF frequencies are generally “line-of-sight” communications. This means they normally travel in a straight line from the transmitter to the receiver. For this reason, they are normally used for local communications. Because VHF and UHF signals are line-of-sight, at some distance, the signals will be blocked by the curvature of the Earth. The maximum distance for line-of-sight communications is called the radio horizon. The radio horizon extends somewhat farther than the visual horizon. T3C11 Why is the radio horizon for VHF and UHF signals more distant than the visual horizon? A. Radio signals move somewhat faster than the speed of light B. Radio waves are not blocked by dust particles C. The atmosphere refracts radio waves slightly D. Radio waves are blocked by dust particles T3C01 Why are simplex UHF signals rarely heard beyond their radio horizon? A. They are too weak to go very far B. FCC regulations prohibit them from going more than 50 miles C. UHF signals are usually not propagated by the ionosphere D. UHF signals are absorbed by the ionospheric D region Some signals bounce off the ionosphere. This gives them the ability to travel much further than line of sight. We’ll talk more about the ionosphere later.   One problem often encountered when using VHF and UHF frequencies is multipath propagation. Multipath propagation occurs when your signals arrive at a receiving station via two or more paths. Since the signal paths may be different lengths, the signals may arrive out of phase and cancel one another or arrive in phase and reinforce one another. Moving an antenna only a few feet, say when you’re operating mobile, can cause the received signal strength to vary greatly. T3A01 Why do VHF signal strengths sometimes vary greatly when the antenna is moved only a few feet? A. The signal path encounters different concentrations of water vapor B. VHF ionospheric propagation is very sensitive to path length C. Multipath propagation cancels or reinforces signals D. All these choices are correct This can be a real problem for mobile operation, as your transmitter and antenna location is constantly changing. This means that the signal strength at the receiving station constantly changes as well. This rapid fluctuation in received signal strength is sometimes called picket fencing. T3A06 What is the meaning of the term “picket fencing”? A. Alternating transmissions during a net operation B. Rapid flutter on mobile signals due to multipath propagation C. A type of ground system used with vertical antennas D. Local vs long-distance communications Because it can cause signal strength to vary greatly, multipath propagation affects both voice and digital transmissions. Since reliable digital transmissions rely on the signals being relatively constant and strong, multipath propagation can cause errors to occur. T3A10 What effect does multipath propagation have on data transmissions? A. Transmission rates must be increased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed B. Transmission rates must be decreased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed C. No significant changes will occur if the signals are transmitted using FM D. Error rates are likely to increase   Knowing how VHF and UHF signals propagate can help you communicate even in adverse conditions. When trying to use a repeater, for example, you may find yourself in a place where a direct path to the repeater is not possible. If you find yourself in this situation, you could try using a directional antenna and bounce your signal off buildings or other obstructions. T3A05 When using a directional antenna, how might your station be able to communicate with a distant repeater if buildings or obstructions are blocking the direct line of sight path? A. Change from vertical to horizontal polarization B. Try to find a path that reflects signals to the repeater C. Try the long path D. Increase the antenna SWR Another phenomenon you might use when a direct path to a repeater is not possible is “knife-edge” diffraction. You might be able to use this phenomenon to get your signal around a building in an urban setting or over a mountain peak in an outside setting. T3C05 Which of the following effects may allow radio signals to travel beyond obstructions between the transmitting and receiving stations? A. Knife-edge diffraction B. Faraday rotation C. Quantum tunneling D. Doppler shift A condition that could impede the transmission of UHF and microwave signals is heavy vegetation. So, keep your antennas out of trees or above trees. T3A02 What is the effect of vegetation on UHF and microwave signals? A. Knife-edge diffraction B. Absorption C. Amplification D. Polarization rotation   Antenna polarization is important at VHF and UHF frequencies. How you mount an antenna directly affects its polarization. When the radiating element of an antenna is vertical, the transmitted radio waves will have a vertical polarization. When the radiating element of an antenna is horizontal, the radio waves will have a horizontal polarization. T3B02 What property of a radio wave defines its polarization? A. The orientation of the electric field B. The orientation of the magnetic field C. The ratio of the energy in the magnetic field to the energy in the electric field D. The ratio of the velocity to the wavelength T3A04 What happens when antennas at opposite ends of a VHF or UHF line of sight radio link are not using the same polarization? A. The modulation sidebands might become inverted B. Received signal strength is reduced C. Signals have an echo effect D. Nothing significant will happen When using a repeater, vertical polarization is most often used. So, when using a handheld transceiver, make sure to hold it so that your antenna is straight up and down. Different activities use different antenna polarizations, though. T3A03 What antenna polarization is normally used for long-distance CW and SSB contacts on the VHF and UHF bands? A. Right-hand circular B. Left-hand circular C. Horizontal D. Vertical The reason for this is that operators transmitting CW and SSB signals are often using what are called beam antennas, and it’s much easier to mount and operate beam antennas horizontally than it is to mount them vertically.   Even though VHF communications are most often line-of-sight, there are some propagation modes that make it possible to communicate over long distances. For example, sometimes VHF signals will bounce off the E layer of the ionosphere. This phenomenon is called “sporadic E” propagation because it happens only sporadically. T3C04 Which of the following types of propagation is most commonly associated with occasional strong signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands from beyond the radio horizon? A. Backscatter B. Sporadic E C. D region absorption D. Gray-line propagation Other interesting propagation phenomena at VHF frequencies include auroral backscatter, meteor scatter, tropospheric scatter, and tropospheric ducting. Bouncing signals off the earth’s aurora is very interesting to do, but the signals usually become distorted and signal strength can vary greatly. This is because the aurora itself is constantly changing. T3C03 What is a characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral backscatter? A. They are often received from 10,000 miles or more B. They are distorted and signal strength varies considerably C. They occur only during winter nighttime hours D. They are generally strongest when your antenna is aimed west Some hams also bounce signals off meteor showers. This propagation mode is called meteor scatter. Meteor scatter propagation is most pronounced on the 6-meter band. T3C07 What band is best suited for communicating via meteor scatter? A. 33 centimeters B. 6 meters C. 2 meters D. 70 centimeters One question that I often get is whether or not the weather affects radio wave propagation. The short answer is no, but there are, of course, exceptions to this rule. One way that weather can affect radio propagation is when there is a temperature inversion in the atmosphere. A temperature inversion occurs when a layer of cooler air gets trapped below a layer of warmer air in the troposphere. The troposphere is the lowest region of the atmosphere, extending from the earth’s surface to a height of about 6–10 km.. When this happens, a tropospheric duct may form. VHF signals entering this duct may propagate through the duct for hundreds of miles. T3C06 What type of propagation is responsible for allowing over-the-horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis? A. Tropospheric ducting B. D region refraction C. F2 region refraction D. Faraday rotation T3C08 What causes tropospheric ducting? A. Discharges of lightning during electrical storms B. Sunspots and solar flares C. Updrafts from hurricanes and tornadoes D. Temperature inversions in the atmosphere Another exception to the rule occurs at microwave frequencies. Precipitation, including rain, snow, or ice can absorb microwave signals, thereby decreasing range. At lower frequencies, however, precipitation has little or no effect on propagation. T3A07 What weather condition might decrease range at microwave frequencies? A. High winds B. Low barometric pressure C. Precipitation D. Colder temperatures T3A12 What is the effect of fog and rain on signals in the 10 meter and 6 meter bands? A. Absorption B. There is little effect C. Deflection D. Range increase The post 2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Radio wave characteristics appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Books and Magazines, 2022 Tech study guide]

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[l] at 1/16/22 9:22pm
The CWops have this thing they call the CW Test, or CWT. CWTs are held every Wednesday/Thursday, and include four, one-hour sessions at times that favor different geographic areas. Theyre not exactly contests, and some CWops think of them as practice sessions for the real contests, but people post their scores to 3830scores.com and brag about them on the CWops mailing list, so theyre more than just practice sessions. Not being a contester, I’m not a big fan of CWTs. I’ve participated in maybe a half dozen over the years. So, when the K1USN Radio Club started a slow-speed version of the CWT, called the Slow Speed Test, or SST, about a year ago, I thought to myself, “Oh, great. There’s another hour that 40m is going to be unusable.” When 0000Z rolled around tonight, however, I was sitting in front the radio, and since I had nothing better to do, I thought I’d give it a try. Don’t knock it until you try it, and all that. First, I had to futz around with N1MM and my Arduino-based WinKeyer clone. I don’t know why, but if I don’t use N1MM for a time, the program fails to find the keyer. I have to either reboot the computer, power-cycle the keyer, or both. After I got that working, I configured N1MM to run the contest. Finally, I found a frequency to run on. Over the last 40 minutes of the SST, I made about one QSO per minute. Although I hate to admit it, it was kind of fun. First off, I ran into some people that I know. Second, I got to help some people. You could tell some of the folks were struggling, but that was OK. I figured it was my job to help them. Afterwards, I got this email from one of the struggling operators: Thank you so much, tonight was my first CW contact ever. I could tell you could tell and slowed right down to the same pace I was using. You were so patient. I appreciate it. I was so nervous I couldn’t even remember how to respond. Thanks mate. Have a great one. Needless to say, my QSL card to commemorate this hams first CW QSO will be in the mail tomorrow. Helping hams make their first CW QSOs and getting more comfortable at the key is worth the time and effort. So, I’m now a believer. And, you’ll probably hear my call in next week’s SST. The post Slow-Speed (CW) Tests: Im a believer appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: CW, Elmering, SST]

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[l] at 1/15/22 8:54am
Heres the second chapter from the 2022 version of my No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide. Resistors Resistors are components that, as the name implies, oppose the flow of current. We use them to control how much current flows in a circuit. The higher the resistance, the lower the current. Most resistors have a fixed value, specified in ohms, but some are designed to be variable. That is, you can change the resistance of the resistor by turning a shaft or sliding a control back and forth. Variable resistors, also called potentiometers, are often used to allow users to adjust the way a device operates. T6A01 What electrical component opposes the flow of current in a DC circuit? A. Inductor B. Resistor C. Inverter D. Transformer T6A02 What type of component is often used as an adjustable volume control? A. Fixed resistor B. Power resistor C. Potentiometer D. Transformer T6A03 What electrical parameter is controlled by a potentiometer? A. Inductance B. Resistance C. Capacitance D. Field strength Capacitors Another common electrical component is the capacitor. The most basic type of capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by an insulator, called a dielectric. When you put a DC voltage across a capacitor, an electric current flows into the capacitor until the voltage across the capacitor equals the DC voltage. This puts a positive charge on one plate and a negative charge on the other, thereby creating an electric field between the two plates. T6A05 What type of electrical component consists of conductive surfaces separated by an insulator? A. Resistor B. Potentiometer C. Oscillator D. Capacitor T6A04 What electrical component stores energy in an electric field? A. Varistor B. Capacitor C. Inductor D. Diode The capacitor stores energy in that electric field. The ability to store energy in an electric field is called capacitance, and the unit of capacitance is called the farad. T5C01 What describes the ability to store energy in an electric field? A. Inductance B. Resistance C. Tolerance D. Capacitance T5C02 What is the unit of capacitance? A. The farad B. The ohm C. The volt D. The henry Inductors The third most common type of electrical component in amateur radio equipment is the inductor. Inductors are usually small coils of wire, and when a current flows through that coil of wire, a magnetic field is set up around the coil. T6A07 What electrical component is typically constructed as a coil of wire? A. Switch B. Capacitor C. Diode D. Inductor T6A06 What type of electrical component stores energy in a magnetic field? A. Varistor B. Capacitor C. Inductor D. Diode The inductor stores energy in the magnetic field. The ability to do this is called inductance, and the unit of inductance is the henry. T5C03 What describes the ability to store energy in a magnetic field? A. Admittance B. Capacitance C. Resistance D. Inductance T5C04 What is the unit of inductance? A. The coulomb B. The farad C. The henry D. The ohm Batteries As amateur radio operators, we often use batteries to power our radio equipment. Some types of batteries are rechargeable, while others are not. T6A11 Which of the following battery chemistries is not rechargeable? A. Nickel-cadmium B. Carbon-zinc C. Lead-acid D. Lithium-ion T6A10 Which of the following battery chemistries is rechargeable? A. Nickel-metal hydride B. Lithium-ion C. Lead-acid D. All these choices are correct Diodes Diodes are the most basic semiconductor component. They have only two electrodes, called the anode and cathode, and conduct current only when it is forward biased. That is to say, diodes only conduct current when the voltage on the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. When the diode is reverse biased, i.e., when the voltage on the anode is negative with respect to the cathode, the diode will not conduct current. To identify the cathode, it is often marked with a stripe. T6B02 What electronic component allows current to flow in only one direction? A. Resistor B. Fuse C. Diode D. Driven element T6B09 What are the names for the electrodes of a diode? A. Plus and minus B. Source and drain C. Anode and cathode D. Gate and base T6B06 How is the cathode lead of a semiconductor diode often marked on the package? A. With the word cathode B. With a stripe C. With the letter C D. With the letter K When a diode is forward-biased, and a current flows through a diode, there is a voltage drop across the diode called the forward voltage drop. The value of the forward voltage drop is lower in some diodes than in others. For example, the forward voltage of a germanium diode is about 0.3 V, while the forward voltage drop in a silicon diode is about 0.7 V. T6B01 Which is true about forward voltage drop in a diode? A. It is lower in some diode types than in others B. It is proportional to peak inverse voltage C. It indicates that the diode is defective D. It has no impact on the voltage delivered to the load Light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, are a particular type of diode. When LEDs are forward-biased, that is to say when DC current flows through them in the forward direction, they emit visible light, making them useful as indicators and as part of digital readouts. T6B07 What causes a light-emitting diode (LED) to emit light? A. Forward DC current B. Reverse DC current C. Capacitively-coupled RF signal D. Inductively-coupled RF signal T6D07 Which of the following is commonly used as a visual indicator? A. LED B. FET C. Zener diode D. Bipolar transistor Transistors Transistors are semiconductor components designed to control the current flow through them. They have three leads and one of those leads is used as the control pin. A current, in the case of the bipolar junction transistor, or a voltage, in the case of the field effect transistor, on the control pin controls the current flow between the two other pins. In some circuits, the transistor is used as a switch, and the control signal simply switches the current on and off. In other circuits, the transistor is used as an amplifier. When used as an amplifier, the current through the transistor is proportional to the input current or voltage. The ratio of output current to input current is called the gain of the transistor. T6B03 Which of these components can be used as an electronic switch? A. Varistor B. Potentiometer C. Transistor D. Thermistor T6B11 What is the term that describes a devices ability to amplify a signal? A. Gain B. Forward resistance C. Forward voltage drop D. On resistance T6B10 Which of the following can provide power gain? A. Transformer B. Transistor C. Reactor D. Resistor Bipolar junction transistors are transistors that consist of three regions of semiconductor material. These regions are either P-type, which means that it has a positive net charge, or N-type, which means it has a net negative charge. Each region has an electrode, making the transistor a device with three leads. The names of these three electrodes are emitter, base and collector. There are two types of bipolar junction transistors: PNP or NPN. A PNP transistor has two P layers, with an N layer sandwiched between them. An NPN transistor has two N layers, with a P layer sandwiched between them. T6B04 Which of the following components can consist of three regions of semiconductor material? A. Alternator B. Transistor C. Triode D. Pentagrid converter T6B12 What are the names of the electrodes of a bipolar junction transistor? A. Signal, bias, power B. Emitter, base, collector C. Input, output, supply D. Pole one, pole two, output Another type of transistor often found in amateur radio equipment is the field-effect transistor, or FET. To control the flow of current through the field effect transistor, you use a voltage signal on the control pin. This voltage sets up an electric field inside the transistor, hence the name field effect transistor. FETs, like NPN and PNP transistors have three electrodes. These electrodes are called the gate, drain, and source. T6B08 What does the abbreviation FET stand for? A. Frequency Emission Transmitter B. Fast Electron Transistor C. Free Electron Transmitter D. Field Effect Transistor T6B05 What type of transistor has a gate, drain, and source? A. Varistor B. Field-effect C. Tesla-effect D. Bipolar junction Circuit diagrams, schematic symbols, component functions When describing circuits on paper, we draw diagrams called schematic diagrams that show the components used in a circuit and how those components are connected together. Using schematic diagrams lets us describe how a circuit works and lets us reproduce a circuit more easily. The circuit components are represented by symbols that readily identify the type of component and its value or part number. T6C01 What is the name of an electrical wiring diagram that uses standard component symbols? A. Bill of materials B. Connector pinout C. Schematic D. Flow chart T6C12 Which of the following is accurately represented in electrical schematics? A. Wire lengths B. Physical appearance of components C. Component connections D. All these choices are correct Figure T-1 is a schematic diagram of a simple transistor circuit. In this circuit, the transistor is used as a switch that turns on a lamp when a positive voltage is applied to the input. T6C02 What is component 1 in figure T-1? A. Resistor B. Transistor C. Battery D. Connector T6C03 What is component 2 in figure T-1? A. Resistor B. Transistor C. Indicator lamp D. Connector T6D10 What is the function of component 2 in figure T-1? A. Give off light when current flows through it B. Supply electrical energy C. Control the flow of current D. Convert electrical energy into radio waves T6C04 What is component 3 in figure T-1? A. Resistor B. Transistor C. Lamp D. Ground symbol T6C05 What is component 4 in figure T-1? A. Resistor B. Transistor C. Ground symbol D. Battery This battery supplies the current that lights the lamp. The circuit shown in Figure T2 is a simple power supply. Component 2 is a fuse. T6A12 What type of switch is represented by component 3 in figure T-2? A. Single-pole single-throw B. Single-pole double-throw C. Double-pole single-throw D. Double-pole double-throw It turns the power supply on and off. T6C09 What is component 4 in figure T-2? A. Variable inductor B. Double-pole switch C. Potentiometer D. Transformer T6D06 What component changes 120 V AC power to a lower AC voltage for other uses? A. Variable capacitor B. Transformer C. Transistor D. Diode Component 5 in Figure T2 is a rectifier diode. Rectifier diodes are designed to handle the higher currents found in power supply circuits. T6D01 Which of the following devices or circuits changes an alternating current into a varying direct current signal? A. Transformer B. Rectifier C. Amplifier D. Reflector T6C06 What is component 6 in figure T-2? A. Resistor B. Capacitor C. Regulator IC D. Transistor Sometimes, this is called a filter capacitor, and its function is to filter out remnants of the 60 Hz AC that are part of the varying direct current signal. T6C07 What is component 8 in figure T-2? A. Resistor B. Inductor C. Regulator IC D. Light emitting diode The LED is a pilot light, serving to alert a user when the power supply is on. T6C08 What is component 9 in figure T-2? A. Variable capacitor B. Variable inductor C. Variable resistor D. Variable transformer Its purpose is to limit the output current of the supply. The circuit shown in Figure T3 is a type of antenna tuner. T6C10 What is component 3 in figure T-3? A. Connector B. Meter C. Variable capacitor D. Variable inductor T6C11 What is component 4 in figure T-3? A. Antenna B. Transmitter C. Dummy load D. Ground Resonant, or tuned, circuits When a circuit has both inductors and capacitors, we sometimes call it a resonant, or tuned circuit. The reason for this is that these circuits have a resonant frequency. When a capacitor and inductor are connected in series, the circuit has a very low impedance at the resonant frequency. When the capacitor and inductor are connected in parallel, the circuit has a very high impedance at the resonant frequency T6D11 Which of the following is a resonant or tuned circuit? A. An inductor and a capacitor in series or parallel B. A linear voltage regulator C. A resistor circuit used for reducing standing wave ratio D. A circuit designed to provide high-fidelity audio T6D08 Which of the following is combined with an inductor to make a resonant circuit? A. Resistor B. Zener diode C. Potentiometer D. Capacitor Other components There are many different types of components in modern radio equipment. Below, we will describe the types of components you will need to know about to pass the Technician Class license examination. Switches are used to open and close circuits or to switch an input or output between two or more circuits. A single-pole, dual-throw, or SPDT, switch connects a single circuit between two other circuits. T6A08 What is the function of an SPDT switch? A. A single circuit is opened or closed B. Two circuits are opened or closed C. A single circuit is switched between one of two other circuits D. Two circuits are each switched between one of two other circuits Normally, switches are manually-controlled, such as the light switch in your home. Relays, however, are controlled electrically. Applying a voltage to the input of a relay causes its output to switch. T6D02 What is a relay? A. An electrically-controlled switch B. A current controlled amplifier C. An inverting amplifier D. A pass transistor Meters are devices used to indicate many different values. Meters can indicate the output voltage of a power supply, the output power of a transmitter, and many other values. T6D04 Which of the following displays an electrical quantity as a numeric value? A. Potentiometer B. Transistor C. Meter D. Relay To make electronic circuits smaller, component manufacturers make devices that have many electronic components on a single piece of silicon. We call these integrated circuits. Integrated circuits, such as microprocessors, may have million of transistors inside them. T6D09 What is the name of a device that combines several semiconductors and other components into one package? A. Transducer B. Multi-pole relay C. Integrated circuit D. Transformer Integrated circuits may perform either analog or digital functions. One type of analog integrated circuit that is very common is the voltage regulator. T6D05 What type of circuit controls the amount of voltage from a power supply? A. Regulator B. Oscillator C. Filter D. Phase inverter Power supplies generally have one or more fuses. An output fuse, for example, will prevent a device connected to the power supply from drawing so much current from the supply that it damages the supply. We call this situation a current overload. The output fuse protects the power supply from damage by breaking the connection between the power supply and the device being powered when the current rises above a certain value. T6A09 What electrical component is used to protect other circuit components from current overloads? A. Fuse B. Thyratron C. Varactor D. All these choices are correct When connecting electronic assemblies together, we often use cables with one or more conductors. Some of those conductors may have a shield around them that is connected to ground. T6D03 Which of the following is a reason to use shielded wire? A. To decrease the resistance of DC power connections B. To increase the current carrying capability of the wire C. To prevent coupling of unwanted signals to or from the wire D. To couple the wire to other signals The post 2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Electronic components and circuits appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Classes/Testing/Licensing]

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[l] at 1/13/22 8:59am
Ive written before about how seriously IARU Region 1 seems to be monitoring for intruders in our ham bands. Ive also wondered why Region 2 didnt have its own monitoring system. Well, now IARU R2 is getting serious about recruiting a Monitoring System Coordinator. Heres the posting: IARU R2 is looking for a volunteer to be its Monitoring System Coordinator (MSC). The MSC is R2’s liaison with the IARU Monitoring System and serves as R2’s representative on the IARU Monitoring System Committee. The Coordinator acts as a single point of contact for collecting and disseminating information on harmful interference to Amateur operations in the region. Qualifications: The IARU Region 2 Monitoring System Coordinator shall be a licensed amateur radio operator residing in Region 2, and a member of and nominated by her/his national society. The MSC shall have the necessary and appropriate knowledge and experience to make recommendations to the Region 2 Executive Committee regarding interference related issues, be able to assist Member Societies with appropriate information as they may request, and participate in the IARU Monitoring System Committee as Region’s 2 representative. Facility in both Spanish and English is required. For a full description of the Monitoring System Coordinator role, please see the IARU R2 Standard Operating Procedures, Section X: https://www.iaru-r2.org/en/reference/standard-operating-procedures/ https://www.iaru-r2.org/referencias/procedimientos-operacionales-normales/ Interested candidates should address a letter indicating their qualifications and support of their society to: secretary@iaru-r2.org or secretario@iaru-r2.org All inquiries will be acknowledged. The post You could be the next IARU Monitoring System coordinator appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: EMI/RFI, IARU, IARU R2, Intruders]

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[l] at 1/8/22 1:00pm
Units and terms: current, voltage, and resistance; alternating and direct current; conductors and insulators Figure 1 shows a simple electric circuit. It consists of a voltage source (in this case a battery, labeled V), a resistor (labeled R), and some wires to connect the battery to the resistor. When connected in this way, the voltage across the battery will cause a current (labeled I) to flow through the circuit. Voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) are the three basic parameters of an electric circuit. Figure 1. Simple electric circuit. Voltage is the force that causes electrons to flow in a circuit. Voltage is measured in volts, and we use the letter V to represent both the force and the units. T5A05 What is the electrical term for the force that causes electron flow? A. Voltage B. Ampere-hours C. Capacitance D. Inductance Current is the flow of electrons in a circuit. In Figure 1, the letter I stands for current. Current flows from the positive (+) terminal of the voltage source through the circuit to the negative terminal of the voltage source. Current is measured in amperes, and we use the letter A to stand for amperes. T5A03 What is the name for the flow of electrons in an electric circuit? A. Voltage B. Resistance C. Capacitance D. Current T5A01 Electrical current is measured in which of the following units? A. Volts B. Watts C. Ohms D. Amperes Because the polarity of the battery voltage in the circuit never changes, the current will flow in only one direction through the circuit. We call this direct current, or DC. Batteries supply direct current, or simply, DC. The type of current you get out of a wall socket is different from the current that you get from a battery. We call it alternating current because the voltage and current are constantly changing. Figure 2 shows an alternating current waveform. That is to say it shows how the voltage changes over time. For this particular waveform, the voltage starts at 0 V, increases to a positive peak voltage, then decreases to a negative peak voltage, and then begins increasing again, until it once again reaches 0 V. This process repeats over and over. T5A09 Which of the following describes alternating current? A. Current that alternates between a positive direction and zero B. Current that alternates between a negative direction and zero C. Current that alternates between positive and negative directions D. All these answers are correct One of the most important parameters of an alternating current is its frequency. The frequency of an alternating current is the number of times per second that an alternating current makes a complete cycle, where a cycle is the portion of an alternating current waveform that repeats over and over. The frequency of the alternating current that you get from a wall socket in your home is 60 cycles per second, or in engineering terms, 60 hertz (Hz). 1 Hz is equal to one cycle per second. T5A12 What describes the number of times per second that an alternating current makes a complete cycle? A. Pulse rate B. Speed C. Wavelength D. Frequency T5A06 What is the unit of frequency? A. Hertz B. Henry C. Farad D. Tesla Resistance is the third basic parameter of an electric circuit. As the name implies, resistance opposes the flow of current in a circuit. The higher the resistance, the smaller the current, for a given voltage. This applies to direct current, alternating current, and RF current, which is alternating current with a high frequency. We use the letter R to stand for resistance. Resistance is measured in ohms, and we use the Greek letter omega (Ω) to stand for ohms. T5A04 What are the units of electrical resistance? A. Siemens B. Mhos C. Ohms D. Coulombs T5A11 What type of current flow is opposed by resistance? A. Direct current B. Alternating current C. RF current D. All these choices are correct To connect components in an electric circuit, we generally use copper wires because they conduct electrical current well or, in other words, have a low resistance. Metals generally are good conductors because they have many free electrons, and as a result offer low resistance to current flow. T5A07 Why are metals generally good conductors of electricity? A. They have relatively high density B. They have many free electrons C. They have many free protons D. All these choices are correct Silver is actually a better conductor than copper, but copper is a lot less expensive than silver. Often, you will see gold used as a conductor. Although gold is not as good a conductor as either copper or silver, it doesn’t corrode like copper or silver. That makes it a good choice for switch or connector contacts. Many times we need a material that does not conduct current very well. We call these materials insulators, and insulators have a high resistance. Plastics and glass are commonly used insulators. T5A08 Which of the following is a good electrical insulator? A. Copper B. Glass C. Aluminum D. Mercury Ohm’s Law: formulas and usage Hams obey Ohm’s Law! Ohm’s Law is the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electrical circuit. When you know any two of these values, you can calculate the third. The most basic equation for Ohm’s Law is V = I × R. In other words, when you know the current (I) flowing through a circuit and the resistance (R) of the circuit, you can calculate the voltage across the circuit by multiplying these two values. T5D02 What formula is used to calculate voltage in a circuit? A. V = I x R B. V = I / R C. V = I + R D. V = I R Using simple algebra, you can derive the other two forms of this equation: R = V / I and I = V / R. These two equations let you calculate the resistance in a circuit if you know the voltage and current or the current in a circuit if you know the voltage and resistance. T5D03 What formula is used to calculate resistance in a circuit? A. R = V x I B. R = V / I C. R = V + I D. R = V – I T5D01 What formula is used to calculate current in a circuit? A. I = V x R B. I = V / R C. I = V + R D. I = V R Now, let’s look at some examples of how to apply Ohm’s Law. T5D04 What is the resistance of a circuit in which a current of 3 amperes flows when connected to 90 volts? A. 3 ohms B. 30 ohms C. 93 ohms D. 270 ohms Here’s how to calculate this answer: R = V / I = 90 V / 3 A = 30 Ω T5D05 What is the resistance of a circuit for which the applied voltage is 12 volts and the current flow is 1.5 amperes? A. 18 ohms B. 0.125 ohms C. 8 ohms D. 13.5 ohms R = E / I = 12 V / 1.5 A = 8 Ω T5D06 What is the resistance of a circuit that draws 4 amperes from a 12-volt source? A. 3 ohms B. 16 ohms C. 48 ohms D. 8 ohms R = E / I = 12 V / 4 A = 3 Ω. Now, lets look at another form of the Ohms Law equation, I = E / R to calculate the current in a circuit. T5D07 What is the current in a circuit with an applied voltage of 120 volts and a resistance of 80 ohms? A. 9600 amperes B. 200 amperes C. 0.667 amperes D. 1.5 amperes I = E / R = 120 V / 80 Ω = 1.5 A T5D08 What is the current through a 100-ohm resistor connected across 200 volts? A. 20,000 amperes B. 0.5 amperes C. 2 amperes D. 100 amperes I = E / R = 200 V / 100 Ω = 2 A T5D09 What is the current through a 24-ohm resistor connected across 240 volts? A. 24,000 amperes B. 0.1 amperes C. 10 amperes D. 216 amperes I = E / R = 240 V / 24 Ω = 10 A Now, lets look at the third form of the Ohms Law equation, E = I × R to calculate the voltage across a circuit. T5D10 What is the voltage across a 2-ohm resistor if a current of 0.5 amperes flows through it? A. 1 volt B. 0.25 volts C. 2.5 volts D. 1.5 volts E = I × R = 0.5 A × 2 Ω = 1 V T5D11 What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a current of 1 ampere flows through it? A. 1 volt B. 10 volts C. 11 volts D. 9 volts E = I × R = 1 A × 10 Ω = 10 V T5D12 What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a current of 2 amperes flows through it? A. 8 volts B. 0.2 volts C. 12 volts D. 20 volts E = I × R = 2 A × 10 Ω = 20 V Series and parallel circuits Now, let’s consider circuits with two resistors instead of just a single resistor. There are two ways in which the two resistors can be connected: in series or in parallel. Figure 2 shows a series circuit. Figure 2. Series circuit. There is only one path for the current to flow, so the same current flows through both resistors. If R1 = R2, then the voltage will be the same across both resistors, because the same current flows through both resistors. If R1 does not equal R2, however, the voltages will be different. In either case, the sum of the two voltages will equal the voltage of the voltage source. T5D13 In which type of circuit is DC current the same through all components? A. Series B. Parallel C. Resonant D. Branch In a parallel circuit, shown in Figure 3, both resistors are connected directly to the voltage source. Figure 3. Parallel circuit Because both components are connected directly to the voltage source, the voltage across them will be the same. This voltage will cause currents to flow in each of the resistors. I1 = V/R1, and I2 = V/R2. The total current, I, is equal to I1 + I2. If R1 = R2, then the same current flows through both resistors. If the resistors have different values, then I1 will be different from I2. T5D14 In which type of circuit is voltage the same across all components? A. Series B. Parallel C. Resonant D. Branch DC power Power is the rate at which electrical energy is generated or consumed. Power is measured in watts. We use the letter P to stand for power and the letter W to stand for watts. T5A10 Which term describes the rate at which electrical energy is used? A. Resistance B. Current C. Power D. Voltage T5A02 Electrical power is measured in which of the following units? A. Volts B. Watts C. Watt-hours D. Amperes To calculate power, we multiply the voltage across a circuit by the current flowing through the circuit. We write this equation P = V × I. T5C08 What is the formula used to calculate electrical power (P) in a DC circuit? A. P = V x I B. P = V / I C. P = V – I D. P = V + I Here are some examples: T5C09 How much power is delivered by a voltage of 13.8 volts DC and a current of 10 amperes? A. 138 watts B. 0.7 watts C. 23.8 watts D. 3.8 watts The calculation for this question is P = E × I = 13.8 V × 10 A = 138 W. T5C10 How much power is delivered by a voltage of 12 volts DC and a current of 2.5 amperes? A. 4.8 watts B. 30 watts C. 14.5 watts D. 0.208 watts The calculation for this question is P = E × I = 12 V × 2.5 A = 30 W. Just as with Ohm’s Law, you can use algebra to come up with other forms of this equation to calculate the voltage if you know the power and the current, or to calculate the current if you know the power and the voltage. The formula to calculate the current, if you know the power and the voltage, is I = P / E. T5C11 How much current is required to deliver 120 watts at a voltage of 12 volts DC? A. 0.1 amperes B. 10 amperes C. 12 amperes D. 132 amperes The calculation for this question is I = P / E = 120 W / 12 V = 10 A. Math for electronics and conversion of electrical units When dealing with electrical parameters such as voltage, resistance, current, and power, we use a set of prefixes to denote various orders of magnitude: milli- is the prefix used to denote 1 one-thousandth of a quantity. A milliampere, for example, is 1 one-thousandth of an ampere, or 0.001 A. Often, the letter m is used instead of the prefix milli-. 1 milliampere is, therefore, 1 mA. micro- is the prefix used to denote 1 one-millionth of a quantity. A microvolt, for example, is 1 one-millionth of a volt, or 0.000001 V. Often, you will see the Greek letter mu, or μ, used to denote the prefix micro-. 1 microvolt is, therefore, 1 μV. pico- is the prefix used to denote 1 one-trillionth of a quantity. A picovolt is 1 one-trillionth of a volt, or 0.000001 μV. kilo- is the prefix used to denote 1 thousand of a quantity. A kilovolt, for example, is 1000 volts. Often, the letter k is used instead of the prefix kilo-. 1 kilovolt is, therefore, 1 kV. mega- is the prefix used to denote 1 million of a quantity. A megahertz, for example, is 1 million Hertz. Often, the letter M is used instead of the prefix mega-. 1 megahertz is, therefore, 1 MHz. giga is the prefix used to denote one billion of a quantity. One gigahertz, or 1 GHz, for example is 1 billion Hertz. Prefix Abbreviation Numerical Exponential giga- G 1,000,000,000 109 mega- M 1,000,000 106 kilo- k 1,000 103 - - 1 100 milli- m 0.001 10-3 micro- μ,u 0.000001 10-6 nano- n 0.000000001 10-9 pico- p 0.000000000001 10-12 Here are some examples: T5B01 How many milliamperes is 1.5 amperes? A. 15 milliamperes B. 150 milliamperes C. 1500 milliamperes D. 15,000 milliamperes To convert amperes to milliamperes, you multiply by 1,000. T5B02 Which is equal to 1,500,000 hertz? A. 1500 kHz B. 1500 MHz C. 15 GHz D. 150 kHz To convert from hertz (Hz) to kHz, you divide by 1,000. T5B03 Which is equal to one kilovolt? A. One one-thousandth of a volt B. One hundred volts C. One thousand volts D. One million volts T5B04 Which is equal to one microvolt? A. One one-millionth of a volt B. One million volts C. One thousand kilovolts D. One one-thousandth of a volt To convert from kilovolts to volts, you multiply by 1,000. To convert from microvolts to volts, you divide by one million. T5B05 Which is equal to 500 milliwatts? A. 0.02 watts B. 0.5 watts C. 5 watts D. 50 watts To convert from milliwatts to watts, you divide by 1,000. 500 / 1000 = ½ or 0.5. T5B08 Which is equal to 1,000,000 picofarads? A. 0.001 microfarads B. 1 microfarad C. 1000 microfarads D. 1,000,000,000 microfarad The farad is the unit of capacitance. There are 1 million picofarads in a microfarad. T5B06 Which is equal to 3000 milliamperes? A. 0.003 amperes B. 0.3 amperes C. 3,000,000 amperes D. 3 amperes There are a thousand milliamperes in an ampere, so to convert from milliamperes to amperes, you divide by 1,000. T5C13 What is the abbreviation for kilohertz? A. KHZ B. khz C. khZ D. kHz 1 kHz is 1,000 Hz or 1,000 cycles per second. Note that the “H” in Hz is capitalized. T5B07 Which is equal to 3.525 MHz? A. 0.003525 kHz B. 35.25 kHz C. 3525 kHz D. 3,525,000 kHz T5B12 Which is equal to 28400 kHz? A. 28.400 kHz B. 2.800 MHz C. 284.00 MHz D. 28.400 MHz T5B13 Which is equal to 2425 MHz? A. 0.002425 GHz B. 24.25 GHz C. 2.425 GHz D. 2425 GHz To convert from MHz to kHz, you multiply by 1,000. To convert from kHz to MHz, or to convert from MHz to GHz, you divide by 1,000. Decibels When dealing with ratios—especially power ratios—we often use decibels (dB). The reason for this is that the decibel scale is a logarithmic scale, meaning that we can talk about large ratios with relatively small numbers. When the value is positive, it means that there is a power increase. When the value is negative, it means that there is a power decrease. At this point, you don’t need to know the formula used to calculate the ratio in dB, but you need to know the ratios represented by the values 3 dB, 6 dB, and 10 dB. T5B09 Which decibel value most closely represents a power increase from 5 watts to 10 watts? A. 2 dB B. 3 dB C. 5 dB D. 10 dB 3 dB corresponds to a ratio of 2 to 1, and because going from 5 watts to 10 watts doubles the power, we can also say that there is a gain of 3 dB. T5B10 Which decibel value most closely represents a power decrease from 12 watts to 3 watts? A. -1 dB B. -3 dB C. -6 dB D. -9 dB 6 dB corresponds to a ratio of 4 to 1, and a decrease in power from 12 watts to 3 watts is a ratio of 4 to 1. Because this is a power decrease, the value in dB is negative. T5B11 Which decibel value represents a power increase from 20 watts to 200 watts? A. 10 dB B. 12 dB C. 18 dB D. 28 dB Increasing the power from 20 watts to 200 watts is a ratio of 10 to 1, and 10 dB corresponds to a ratio of 10 to 1. The post 2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide Electrical Principles appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Everything Else]

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[l] at 1/8/22 1:00pm
The 2022 version of the Technician Class question pool is out. The National Council of Voluteer Examiner Coordinators have really made quite a few changes to the question pool this time. They removed 64 questions, added 51 new questions, and updated 136 questions. There are now a total of 412 questions total. This means that close to half of the questions are different from the last question pool. I got started working on updating my No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide this week. From the get go, I ran into questions that had been deleted or modified. T5A05 is the first question that I cover in the study guide. The question in 2018 question pool reads: What is the electrical term for the electromotive force (EMF) that causes electron flow? (ANSWER: Voltage) This question is followed by: What is the unit of electromotive force? (ANSWER: The volt) Now, T5A05 reads: What is the electrical term for the force that causes electron flow? (ASNWER: Voltage) The second question about the unit of electromotive force has been deleted. Im not really sure that either version of the question is 100% correct, but after consulting with my friend Bob Witte, K0NR, and Ward Silver, N0AX (editor of the ARRL Handbook), Ive decided to just let it go. They point out that even authors of engineering textbooks are split on how to describe the relationship of electromove force and voltage. The ARRL Handbook 2022 is kind of equivocal: Electromotive force (or EMF) [is] the source of energy that causes charged particles to move. Voltage is the general term for the strength of the electromotive force or the different in electrical potential between two points. Voltage and EMF  are often used interchangeably in radio. Ill also note that they use EMF and the letter E when they define Ohms Law and describe Kirchoffs Voltage Law. Speaking of equations, since the Question Pool committee has decided to go with voltage instead of EMF, they had to change all of the questions dealing with Ohms Law a power calculation. For example, the answer to T5D02, What formula is used to calculate voltage in a circuit? was Voltage (E) equals current (I) multiplied by resistance (R) in the 2018 question pool, but is now simply V = I x R. The questions dealing with the other versions of Ohms Law have been similarly changed. Despite this, I do think this version of the question pool has been improved. Theyve eliminated, for example T5A06, How much voltage does a mobile transceiver typically require? This question wasnt so bad in and of itself, but it just didnt belong in this section. They also improved the question about electrical conductors. Instead of just asking which material is a good conductor, they now ask, Why are metals generally good conductors of electricity? At any rate, Im now hard at work on updating the study guide. I have, in fact, already completed the first draft of the first chapter. Click here to take a look at it. Let me know what you think. The post NCVEC makes big changes to Tech question pool appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Everything Else]

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[l] at 1/7/22 11:39am
EZNEC, the popular antenna-modeling software by Roy, W7EL, is now FREE! This might be a good time to learn antenna modeling. EZNEC, the very popular antenna-modeling software written by Roy Lewallen, W7EL, is now FREE! The EZNEC website notes: EZNEC IS NO LONGER FOR SALE. IT IS FREE (see below) THERE WILL BE NO SUPPORT OR REFUNDS The introduction of EZNEC Pro/2+ v. 7.0 has been unavoidably delayed. The estimated time of introduction is Jan. 14, 2022, but Ill do my very best to have it ready before then. It is now undergoing extensive testing and updating of the manual. EZNEC Pro/2+ v. 7.0 will have all the features of EZNEC Pro/2 v. 6.0, plus extra features including wire loss for individual wires and the ability to run external NEC-4.2 and NEC-5 programs for calculation. Until EZNEC Pro/2+ v. 7.0 is available, you can download EZNEC Pro/2 v. 6.0 by clicking here: Download EZNEC Pro/2 v. 6.0 Roy also notes: I want to thank the many people who have sent encouraging and complimentary messages about my retirement. Im very sorry I havent been able to respond because my time has been intensely taken up in getting the new EZNEC Pro+ programs ready. Ill attempt to respond individually after the programs have been released. Watch this page for the EZNEC Pro/2+ and EZNEC Pro/4+ announcement and other updates! A fellow on Reddit writes, For those of you that have never modeled before, I highly recommend reading the four part introduction to antenna modeling written by L. B. Cebik (W4RNL). It appeared in QST a number of years ago and is available on the ARRL web site. http://www.arrl.org/antenna-modeling. Also, the help file for EZNEC contains a decent tutorial as well. The post Want to learn antenna modeling? EZNEC is now free! appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: antennas, antenna modelling, EZNEC, W7EL]

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[l] at 1/6/22 6:00pm
Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) is featured on NASAs recently published web page, Best Space Station Science Pictures of 2021. The first photo (see below) shows NASA astronaut Shannon Walker and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) astronaut Soichi Noguchi pose for a photo during an Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) ham radio session with students at Hisagi Junior High School, Zushi, Japan. The second photo shows NASA astronaut Raja Chari as he spoke with students from Colegio Pumahue in Chile. These photos are also part of the YouTubevideo made from the images. The ARISS photos appear at the 1:58 mark. The post NASA features ARISS in 2021 recap appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Kids, ARISS, NASA]

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[l] at 1/6/22 12:02pm
From ARRL The ARRL Programs and Services Committee is seeking input from stations and groups that participated in ARRL Field Day 2020 and 2021 and has posted a survey. The committee said the survey results may help shape the development of Field Day rules for 2022 and beyond. The survey has already been sent via email to some 13,000 Field Day participants, more than 2,400 Affiliated Clubs, and to the CQ-Contest and VHF-Contesting Reflectors. Jahnke said the Programs and Services Committee invites participants’ insights, in advance of its January meeting, regarding what they consider appropriate for operating ARRL Field Day 2022 during the ongoing pandemic. The committee hopes to learn if participants prefer to continue Field Day under the pandemic accommodations afforded in 2020 and 2021, which included limiting home stations to the Low Power multiplier (150 W PEP), and whether stations in some classes or all other classes should be limited to 150 W PEP as well. Field Day stations operating at high power became the topic of some discussion in the wake of Field Day 2021, when some stations were reported to be running the legal limit on FT8 on crowded bands. Field Day participants may use this survey link or copy this URL into a web browser: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/2022ARRL-FIELD-DAY-SURVEY. The survey will close on January 17, 2022. Direct any questions to the ARRL Contest Department. The post ARRL surveying Field Day participants appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: ARRL, Field Day]

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[l] at 1/5/22 9:23pm
This isnt strictly amateur radio, but I thought youd find this amusing In the evenings, when Im not on the air or fooling around with some electronics project, I like to watch movies from the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s on Amazon. They have a great selection. On New Years Eve, I watched The Mob starring Broderick Crawford. Made in 1952, Amazon billed as a film noir detective classic. Crawford play Johnny DAmico, a cop who goes underground to bust up a rack on the docks. The cast includes Ernest Borgnine as one of the mobsters. I dont know how classic it is, but it was enjoyable. A couple of days later, I happened to run across another Broderick Crawford move, Scandal Sheet, also made in 1952. In this movie, Crawford plays Mark Chandler, a tabloid newspaper editor whose exploits backfire on him, and who becomes the subject of one of his papers own news stories. Donna Reed is one of the co-stars. Last night, the movie du jour was Eternally Yours. When I found this movie, my wife joked, What is thisBroderick Crawford Week? Made in 1940, this movie stars Loretta Young and David Niven. Crawford plays only a minor character in this movie. Instead of clicking around Amazon for Broderick Crawford movies tonight, I thought that Id try to find some episodes of Highway Patrol. This TV series, which ran from 1955 through 1959, starred Crawford as a detective with the Highway Patrol. Highway Patrols imdb page describes the series as a story of powerful patrol cars, fast motorcycles, and superheterodyne two-way radios combining to fight crime on the rural highways of Americas wide open spaces. If youve ever watched this show, you will recall that Crawford was almost always on the radio in his car. Scanning through the episodes on imdb, I found Transmitter Danger. According to imdb, the plot is, Two men steal dynamite and blasting caps for use in future crimes, unaware that any radio transmission signal could trigger the caps and set off a devastating explosion. This, of course, includes ham radio transmitters, and when the Highway Patrol discovers the danger posed by any strong radio transmission, Crawfords character instructs his officers to find the ham radio operators in the area and warn them to stay off the air. Broderick Crawforrd was quite prolific. imdb list 147 credits, the first in 1937 and the last in 1987. Theres no mention of him ever having a ham license, though. The post Fast cars and superheterodyne radios appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Everything Else, Broderick Crawford, Highway Patrol]

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[l] at 1/4/22 3:10pm
In Episode #367, I joined Martin Butler (M1MRB), Edmund Spicer M0MNG, Ed Durrant DD5LP, and Leslie Butterfield G0CIB to discuss the following topics: Georgia Club Donates License Manuals to Local Schools This is a good story, but they donated ARRL license manuals, not my study guides! Norway is Trying to Track Down 2-Meter Intruders This story is kind of vague as to who the intruders are. Amateur Radio Club Bands Together During Pandemic Its amazing that were still banding together nearly two years after the pandemic was declared. Boeing and Airbus Warn US over 5G Safety Concerns No mention is made of any tests being run to determine if there actually could be some interference between 5G devices and aircraft avionics. Finlands Radio Hams Send Gift to Icelandic Amateur Radio Operators The gift is a beautiful paddle thats being installed in the Icelandic Radio Associations club station, and we all hope they will put it to good use. This episodes feature is Ham Radio Tips and Tricks 2022. The post ICQ Podcast Episode 367 Ham Radio Tips and Tricks 2022 appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Everything Else, 5G, Georgia, Iceland, Norway]

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[l] at 1/1/22 8:03am
It appears that Hamvention 2022 is a go, and it is time to get your awards nominations in. If you know an individual or club that deserves recognition for their efforts on behalf of amateur radio and want to nominate them for a 2022 Hamvention award dont delay. Nominations for the Technical Achievement, Special Achievement, Amateur of the Year and Club of the Year close Feb. 15. The Technical Achievement Award will be given to a selected amateur radio operator who has achieved technical excellence in the world of amateur radio. Examples are inventions, processes, discoveries, experiments and other technical accomplishments or any other outstanding technical achievement that contributed to amateur radio. The Special Achievement Award will be given to a deserving amateur that made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of the radio art and or science. This award is usually given to a respected amateur who spearheaded a single significant project. The Amateur of the Year Award is given to a ham that has made a long-term commitment to the advancement to amateur radio. This individual will have a history of ham radio contributions and has had a dedication to service, professionalism and the advancement of the avocation of amateur radio. The Club of the Year will be honored for clearly demonstrating their involvement in varied aspects of Amateur Radio for the greater good of their community and/or their nation. Nomination forms, available at https://hamvention.org/event-details/awards/, are dedicated to the appropriate award nomination. At a minimum, each form should be completed with the information indicated but additional documentation is welcome. Please make sure that the nominating person is identified with a method to reach them in the case of questions from the nominating committee. Forms may be submitted using the following methods: Email awards@hamvention.org; U.S. Postal Mail: Hamvention Attn: Awards Committee. Box 964, Dayton, OH 45401-0964. Thank you and please address any questions to awards@hamvention.org. Hamvention, an official ARRL Sanctioned Event, will be held Friday-Sunday, May 20-22 2022 at the Greene County Fairgrounds and Expo Center. Keep the date open on your calendar and plan to attend. This is our opportunity to see everything that is new in our great hobby, the newest products, the newest ideas and the latest from our Amateur Radio vendors. Hamvention also brings great speakers to their forum agenda, check the Hamvention web pages for full details. For more information www.hamvention.org The post Hamvention accepting nominations appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Hamfests, Dayton, Hamvention]

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[l] at 12/30/21 8:08pm
A couple of evenings ago, I had a couple of interesting contacts with stations running QRP. That wasnt the most interesting thing about the contacts, though. The contact with Kyle, KN6KJK, was remarkable for a couple of reasons: He was a Tech operating CW on 40m. He used my study guide to prepare for his Tech exam (and he thanked me for that.) KJK are actually his initials, and he was randomly assigned that callsign from the call sign pool. My next contact was with Jerry, KI4PS. He was operating an FT-818 at 5 W. The reason that this contact was interesting is that Jerry cut the contact short, complaining about QRM. There was indeed a signal operating very close to our frequency (see screenshot at left). Im going to guess that that signal was about 250 Hz down from our frequency of 7028 kHz. I didnt hear that signal at all. I had my Flex 6400 filter set to 250 Hz, meaning that the QRM was outside of the passband. Thats a real tribute to the Flex filtering algorithms. Finally, I worked a guy a couple of days after Christmas who has the following on his QRZ.Com page: Dont get the chinese virus vaccine it may contain ID2020 chip as immunity passport. It is part of the mark of the beast! Seriously?? I had hoped that ham radio operators had more sense, but I guess not. My take on it is that even if there was an ID2020 chip, it wouldnt be available due to the chip shortage. The post Operating notes: a compendium of recent interesting contacts appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Operating, QRP]

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[l] at 12/28/21 9:36am
Amateur Radio Club bands together during pandemic BARRIE, ON, CANADA — As the pandemic picks up speed once again and people are advised to limit their in-person social interactions, a small group of people are reaching out across the airwaves from Barrie to connect with others in a much different way.The Barrie Amateur Radio Club has been one of the few activities that has thrived during the now two-year COVID crisis. read more Keep this in mind should your club decide to cease operations..Dan SAARA SK. SAARA’s goal will continue through fund SALEM (OH) — The Salem Area Amateur Radio Association (SAARA) may have signed off for good, but the group’s mission to promote ham radio communications in the Salem area will continue. That’s because the members chose to establish a Salem Area Amateur Radio Association Fund through the Salem Community Foundation with their remaining cash after disbanding. read more Delving into Quirky, Compelling Corners of the Internet Radio Universe From a radio station that streams from underwater to a station composed of stream-of-consciousness thoughts from a New Yorker calling exclusively from payphones, there is a wealth of unique, charming, niche and bizarre internet radio stations out there online. Radio World spoke with Peter Skiera, the creator and author of the “Recommended Stations”website that uncovers and highlights stations that listeners might not be able to uncover on their own. “Given that there’s over 61,000 internet radio stations from around the world, people understandably get overwhelmed trying to find stations, and they never discover many really good stations,” he told Radio World. “I figured it was time somebody sifted through all of these stations and made recommendations.” read more The post Amateur radio in the news: Club bands together during pandemic, club disbands but fund will continue to promote amateur radio, quirky world of internet radio appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Clubs, SWLing, internet radio]

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[l] at 12/22/21 8:39pm
An intro to S-parameters With the advent of the nanoVNA, S- parameter measurement is now within reach of most hams. What are S-parameters? Watch this video and find out. Most hams probably dont need to know this stuff, but its pretty cool when you do know it.  Crystals go to war They dont make films like this anymore. Im guessing that they dont make crystals like this anymore, either. Why are Fluke meters so expensive? Fluke meters are arguably the Cadillacs of the test and measurement world. In this video, Dave explains why this is so. Although he gives eight reasons why Flukes cost more than other meters, I think that the most important is measurement confidence. You just feel more confident about the measurement when youre using a Fluke. The post Amateur radio videos: S-parameters, crystals go to war, why Fluke meters cost so much appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: crystals, Electronics Theory, Test Equipment, Fluke, s parameters]

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[l] at 12/21/21 8:54pm
The W8SRC UHF repeater in Dexter, MI may not have the best coverage in the world (although it does well for its terrain), but it can be a lot of fun to use for those in the area.  It has a number of features including Yaesu System Fusion, a NOAA Weather Radio alert receiver, and an HF/VHF/UHF remote base.  However, one of the most interesting features of this repeater, in my opinion, is its vast number of IDs and announcements.  In fact, you can ragchew for many hours on the system and not hear the same ID twice! The piece of equipment responsible for generating these announcements is the repeater’s controller.  The first repeater controller I used had numerous issues over the years, including one instance where it locked up my repeater in transmit mode and never identified.  Because of this, I figured that it was time for an upgrade.  Of course, I could have used my repeater’s internal controller (I use the Yaesu DR-1X repeater); however, I believe that a repeater should be an information source as opposed to having only a CW ID.  I received the S-COM 7330 controller as an early Christmas gift from my family in 2019. With the help of Bryan, KC8LMI, and his father, Bruce, KA8ZXX, I quickly learned the programming language of the S-COM controller and started to create many messages on it before it hit the airwaves.  Bryan used scripts from Kim, WA8KIM (who uses an extremely similar setup to mine, and whose entire script file is available on his website , and I decided to expand the number of IDs and announcements on the repeater in the years that followed.  These announcements were put together by combining individual words out of a 1,600+ word vocabulary list recorded by broadcast radio voiceover Sean Caldwell, N4VOX.  Click the play button below to hear examples of these announcements. document.createElement('audio'); https://www.kb6nu.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/W8SRC-Repeater-Sample-12-15-19.mp3 One day in the fall of 2021, my great friend Chad Beach, W9GGA asked me about my opinions on the 7330 compared to my older controller.  I told him that the only thing I missed about my old controller was the fact that it had the ability to record custom announcements via a DVR (to which I would record the messages over the air).  This allowed me to implement a number of the IDs that many other broadcast radio voiceovers have recorded for me (Dan made a post a few years back on his favorites of these IDs), and I missed hearing these voices on my repeater for nearly two years.  I saw in the 7330 manual that it can do the same thing using a different process.  However, I was unaware of a piece of equipment I needed to make this work, so Chad suggested that I contact S-COM to find out. With the 7330, I needed to take my existing .mp3 and .wav files and convert them to the .ulaw raw file format with an 8 kHz sample rate using Audacity.  While I did that on the day after Thanksgiving, I edited down some of the dry files and amplified the levels to those similar to Sean’s vocabulary.  I even added Kim’s free-to-use custom vocabulary word files that Sean recorded for him in 2015.  Because I am a broadcast radio enthusiast myself (I host a morning show on my own Part 15 compliant FM radio station in Ann Arbor, of which Chad is the voiceover), this was a relatively straightforward procedure for me.  I even recorded an ID myself in the process. As I converted and edited the files, I posed my question to the S-COM email list, and a number of 7330 users from across the country were kind enough to help me with my issue.  They told me that the utility I needed was called BuildSpeechLib.exe and can be found on the latest firmware package via the S-COM website.  Because I am entirely a Mac user, though, I had to learn some basic Windows programming before I proceeded.  Believe it or not, the S-COM manual helped me with this process (specifically on how to create a directory)! After transferring all of my raw files from my Mac to my mom’s PC, I used BuildSpeechLib to generate a single file from all the raw files (called CustomAudioLib.bin).  At first, I used a different filename than suggested on the manual, which didn’t work, so I changed the name and it did work.  I then used a terminal emulator called TeraTerm (through which I program all the messages into my controller) to store the messages into the controller’s memory. I was a little confused on the instructions to do so; however, they made sense to me as I read the manual.  I was shocked to find out, however, that it took a few hours to load it when it should take only a half hour at most.  I finally pressed the delete key to cancel, and I tried seemingly every troubleshooting resort possible.  I even powered off the repeater for a few minutes to see if it made a difference.  Nothing seemed to work until I found out that my CustomAudioLib file that the controller generated was empty!  After re-running BuildSpeechLib to generate a new CustomAudioLib with all my files in it, I tried TeraTerm again (which, by the way, uses a similar process when storing my programming onto the PC), and it took no more than eight and a half minutes to load into the controller. I decided to hit the hay at that point, and I started to program the messages into the controller the next morning.  Because I had a boatload of IDs already programmed into the 7330, I replaced some of Sean’s vocabulary announcements with my custom recorded ones, creating a nice balance between the two types of messages.  I also implemented the words “Stuart” and “Fusion” from Kim’s custom list into some more vocabulary messages in the process (I first knew Kim in 2015 and he was kind enough to include my name in his list).  I immediately noticed that the audio quality is significantly better than a recorded DVR track on my old controller! After loading the messages into the controller and storing the configuration into the PC, I decided to make a YouTube video (as a follow-up to my first video that showcases the controller) in case there are others out there who are struggling to get custom files into their 7330 controller.  In addition, I recorded all the messages that I could get with an old RadioShack handheld scanner and a Sony handheld recorder, editing the recording with Audacity.  I hope you enjoy the recording as much as I enjoyed hearing the custom IDs for the first time! The post W8SRC repeater features unique IDs and announcements appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: VHF/FM/Repeaters, W8SRC] [Link to media]

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[l] at 12/19/21 6:27pm
About a week ago, I called CQ on 40 meters, and had a station reply, GET AN 8 CALL LID. Of course, there was no ID. Now, I thought Id done everything right. I called QRL? before launching into my CQ and my sending was pretty good, I thought. So, who knows? Ice on the ladder line Friday night, we got some freezing rain here. It wasnt a lot, and by late Saturday morning, the roads were clear. Oddly, though, the ice persisted on trees and bushes. It was quite beautiful, actually.  I actually should have taken some pictures. The ice also failed to melt off my 450 Ω feedline. And, when I tried to make some contacts late Saturday evening, I found that the antenna wouldnt tune up on 40 meters. Since it was cold and dark by that time, I just gave up for the evening. This morning, I did go out in the backyard and knock as much ice off the feedline as I could manage. Voila! It worked! NVIS propagation? I dont know if  antenna icing had any role in this, but I had a couple of really short-distance, 40-meter contacts today. The first was with NJ8D in Homer, MI, which QRZ.Com says is 68 miles away.  The second was with W8KZW, who is only 25 miles away from me. Both were nearly S9 here in Ann Arbor. The first is definitely sky-wave propagation. The second could possibly be ground-wave propagation, but I doubt it. Im also wondering if the higher solar flux index might have played a part in making these contact possible. As Im writing this (at 8:30 pm EST), the solar flux is 117, and signals are still pretty strong on 40 meters. The post Operating notes: LID!, iced out, short skip appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: antennas, CW, Promotion & PR, ice, NVIS]

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[l] at 12/18/21 8:02am
Got this from Southgate and thought it was worth re-posting. Ill be keeping an eye on this effort.73, Dan Following their recent workshop IARU Region 1 have launched their Shaping the Future program The IARU-R1 website says: In October 2021 the Region 1 workshop for the future of amateur radio was organized online. About 50 countries and 100 participants joined the 5 days workshop and the 7 sessions. For many years there have been discussions about the ham radio situation: what will our hobby look like ten years from now? Can we still take advantage of the radio spectrum to experiment, learn, or simply have a good time chatting with our friends? So as not to let the future or others define this for us, we have decided to take matters into our own hands: The member societies of Region 1 have agreed to meet and reflect together on the direction they want to give to amateur radio. After taking the time to analyze the current situation, a process of reflection was carried out to agree on the medium-term objectives and on the actions to be taken to make this ambition a reality. We will shape our future together, to move amateur radio in the direction we have chosen. Background https://www.iaru-r1.org/stf/background/ Workshop result https://www.iaru-r1.org/stf/workshop-result/ Program organisation https://www.iaru-r1.org/stf/organisation/ Join us https://www.iaru-r1.org/stf/join-us/ The post IARU-R1: Shaping the Future appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: The Service, future, iaru]

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[l] at 12/12/21 9:17am
Do hams drink Dew? N3JT posted this to the CWops mailing list, and I thought it was just hilarious. How electricity really works This video has been making the rounds lately. It presents a very interesting explanation of how electrical energy flows. A peek into the Begali factory I am an unabashed Begali fanboy. Heres a peek inside the Begali factory.   The post Amateur radio videos: Mountain Dew, ARRL Foundation, how does electricity really work?, how Begalis are made appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

[Category: Amateur radio business, CW, Electronics Theory, Begali, Mountain Dew]

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