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[l] at 5/23/24 5:08pm
Enlarge / A Russian Soyuz rocket climbs away from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome on May 16. The launch of a classified Russian military satellite last week deployed a payload that US government officials say is likely a space weapon. In a series of statements, US officials said the new military satellite, named Kosmos 2576, appears to be similar to two previous "inspector" spacecraft launched by Russia in 2019 and 2022. "Just last week, on May 16, Russia launched a satellite into low-Earth orbit that the United States assesses is likely a counter-space weapon presumably capable of attacking other satellites in low-Earth orbit," said Robert Wood, the deputy US ambassador to the United Nations. "Russia deployed this new counter-space weapon into the same orbit as a US government satellite."Read 16 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Space, ASAT, keyhole, launch, military space, russia, space warfare, spy satellite]

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[l] at 5/23/24 1:27pm
Enlarge (credit: YelenaYemchuk) Commercialization has not dealt kindly with the Mayan Food of the Gods. Modern chocolate products are filled with sugar and calories, contributing to the obesity epidemic in the West. And the cocoa crop is hardly in great shape; climate change is decreasing production, causing prices to rise; farmers in West Africa have responded by clear-cutting rainforests in order to plant more cocoa plants. But researchers at ETH Zurich may have found a path to start addressing both problems, making chocolate that has less sugar and calories and makes more efficient use of the cocoa crop. The Swiss perfected chocolate-making over 200 years ago, so if they say the chocolate is good, it is. Chocolate is traditionally made by mixing dried, roasted, and ground fermented cocoa beans to make cocoa mass. The cocoa mass is then mixed with refined sugar, usually from sugar beets. Instead of sugar, this new Swiss whole fruit chocolate uses the pulp surrounding the cocoa beans along with the inner rind of the cocoa pod husk to make a cocoa gel. When mixed with cocoa mass, this produces chocolate that is higher in fiber and lower in saturated fat than conventional chocolate. The “whole fruit” on its label is certainly more appealing than the air or fish oil that has previously been substituted for cocoa butter in order to reduce the saturated fat content of chocolate confections. (Extra cocoa butter, or fat isolated from the cocoa bean, is sometimes added to cocoa mass to make the end product smoother and waxier). The pulp and the cocoa pods are generally discarded, so upcycling them instead of tossing them could reduce the land use impact and global warming potential of cocoa cultivation.Read 4 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, agriculture, Biology, chocolate, Cocoa, food]

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[l] at 5/23/24 12:46pm
Enlarge / American black bear seen along the Red Rock Parkway inside Waterton Lakes National Park in Alberta, Canada. (credit: Getty | Artur Widak) In the summer of 2022, a family gathered in South Dakota for a reunion that included a special meal—kabobs made with the meat of a black bear that one of the family members had "harvested" from northern Saskatchewan, Canada, that May. Lacking a meat thermometer, the family assessed the doneness of the dark-colored meat by eye. At first, they accidentally served it rare, which a few family members noticed before a decision was made to recook it. The rest of the reunion was unremarkable, and the family members departed to their homes in Arizona, Minnesota, and South Dakota. But just days later, family members began falling ill. One, a 29-year-old male in Minnesota, sought care for a mysterious illness marked by fever, severe muscle pains, swelling around his eyes (periorbital edema), high levels of infection-fighting white blood cells (eosinophilia, a common response to parasites), and other laboratory anomalies. The man sought care four times and was hospitalized twice in a 17-day span in July. It wasn't until his second hospitalization that doctors learned about the bear meat—and then it all made sense. The doctors suspected the man had a condition called trichinellosis and infection of Trichinella nematodes (roundworms). These dangerous parasites can be found worldwide, embedded into the muscle fibers of various carnivores and omnivores, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But, it's quite rare to find them in humans in North America. Between 2016 and 2022, there were seven outbreaks of trichinellosis in the US, involving just 35 cases. The majority were linked to eating bear meat, but moose and wild boar meat are also common sources.Read 3 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Health, Science, bear, brain worms, CDC, Meat, parasite, trichinellosis, undercooked]

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[l] at 5/23/24 8:08am
Enlarge (credit: Getty | Jeffrey Greenberg) As new diabetes and weight-loss drugs help patients curb appetites and shed pounds, food manufacturers are looking for new ways to keep their bottom lines plump. Millions of Americans have begun taking the pricey new drugs—particularly Mounjaro, Ozempic, Wegovy, and Zepbound—and millions more are expected to go on them in the coming years. As such, food makers are bracing for slimmer sales. In a report earlier this month, Morgan Stanley's tobacco and packaged food analyst Pamela Kaufman said the drugs are expected to affect both the amounts and the types of food people eat, taking a bite out of the food and drink industry's profits. "In Morgan Stanley Research surveys, people taking weight-loss drugs were found to eat less food in general, while half slashed their consumption of sugary drinks, alcohol, confections and salty snacks, and nearly a quarter stopped drinking alcohol completely," Kaufman said. Restaurants that sell unhealthy foods, particularly chains, may face long-term business risks, the report noted. Around 75 percent of survey respondents taking weight-loss drugs said they had cut back on going to pizza and fast food restaurants.Read 4 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Daily Harvest, diet, food, food industry, GLP-1, GNC, mounjaro, nestle, Ozempic, wegovy, weight loss, Weight Watchers, zepbound]

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[l] at 5/23/24 6:55am
Enlarge / The Enterprise, caught in the wake of a temporal vortex, witnesses the Earth, assimilated long ago, in the altered timeline. (credit: Paramount Pictures) A team of physicists has discovered that it’s possible to build a real, actual, physical warp drive and not break any known rules of physics. One caveat: the vessel doing the warping can’t exceed the speed of light, so you’re not going to get anywhere interesting any time soon. But this research still represents an important advance in our understanding of gravity. Moving without motion Einstein’s general theory of relativity is a toolkit for solving problems involving gravity that connects mass and energy with deformations in spacetime. In turn, those spacetime deformations instruct the mass and energy how to move. In almost all cases, physicists use the equations of relativity to figure out how a particular combination of objects will move. They have some physical scenario, like a planet orbiting a star or two black holes colliding, and they ask how those objects deform spacetime and what the subsequent evolution of the system should be. But it’s also possible to run Einstein’s math in reverse by imagining some desired motion and asking what kind of spacetime deformation can make it possible. This is how the Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre discovered the physical basis for a warp drive—long a staple of the Star Trek franchise.Read 15 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, faster than light travel, general relativity, Physics, warp drive]

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[l] at 5/22/24 4:13pm
Enlarge / Holstein dairy cows in a freestall barn. (credit: Getty | ) A dairy farm worker in Michigan has tested positive for an H5 bird flu virus, marking the second human case of bird flu that has been linked to the unprecedented outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus among dairy cows in the US. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the worker only experienced a mild eye infection and has since recovered, much like the first case in a dairy farm worker in Texas. The Michigan worker was being monitored for symptoms due to exposure—the person worked on a dairy farm with H5N1-infected cattle. In a press briefing Wednesday afternoon, CDC Principal Deputy Director Nirav Shah said the person was taking part in an active surveillance system, in which the state's health department sent out a text message every day asking about the presence of any symptoms. The worker's infection was identified after the person responded that there were symptoms.Read 9 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, bird flu, CDC, cows, H5N1, infection]

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[l] at 5/22/24 1:31pm
Enlarge (credit: Kristian Bell) The lizard Podarcis muralis nigriventris might not grow to a freakish size and smash everything in sight, but evolution has turned this lizard into the Incredible Hulk of sorts—green skin included. P. nigriventris is something like the imposing Marvel superhero when compared to other strains of common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis). While the common version tends to be relatively small and brownish to greenish-brown, the nigriventris subspecies, which is found in central Italy, is visually impressive because of its green(er) skin with black markings, larger size, and heightened aggression. A team of evolutionary biologists led by Nathalie Feiner of Lund University in Sweden decided to find out which genes contributed to making P. nigriventris so Hulkish. Like many fictional humans with superpowers (but unlike the mutant Hulk), this lizard is a hybrid. Hulking hybrids Though common wall lizards are found from the Iberian peninsula all the way to Asia Minor, the researchers focused on lizards from populations in central Italy (IT lineage) and the southern Alps (SA lineage). These lineages most likely diverged from a common ancestor between 5–6 million years ago and then began to hybridize—individuals from the different lineages mated with each other to produce hybrid offspring.Read 11 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Biology, evolution, Genomics, lizards]

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[l] at 5/22/24 9:55am
Enlarge (credit: wildestanimal) Whales use complex communication systems we still don’t understand, a trope exploited in sci-fi shows like Apple TV’s Extrapolations. That show featured a humpback whale (voiced by Meryl Streep) discussing Mahler’s symphonies with a human researcher via some AI-powered inter-species translation app developed in 2046. We’re a long way from that future. But a team of MIT researchers has now analyzed a database of Caribbean sperm whales’ calls and has found there really is a contextual and combinatorial structure in there. But does it mean whales have a human-like language and we can just wait until Chat GPT 8.0 to figure out how to translate from English to Sperm-Whaleish? Not really. One-page dictionary “Sperm whales communicate using clicks. These clicks occur in short packets we call codas that typically last less than two seconds, containing three to 40 clicks,” said Pratyusha Sharma, a researcher at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the lead author of the study. Her team argues that codas are analogues of words in human language and are further organized in coda sequences that are analogues of sentences. “Sperm whales are not born with this communication system; it's acquired and changes over the course of time,” Sharma said.Read 24 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, animal behavior, Biology, language, whale song, whales]

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[l] at 5/22/24 12:15am
Enlarge / Boeing's Starliner spacecraft on the eve of the first crew launch attempt earlier this month. (credit: Miguel J. Rodriguez Carrillo/AFP via Getty Images) The first crewed test flight of Boeing's long-delayed Starliner spacecraft won't take off as planned Saturday and could face a longer postponement as engineers evaluate a stubborn leak of helium from the capsule's propulsion system. NASA announced the latest delay of the Starliner test flight late Tuesday. Officials will take more time to consider their options for how to proceed with the mission after discovering the small helium leak on the spacecraft's service module. The space agency did not describe what options are on the table, but sources said they range from flying the spacecraft "as is" with a thorough understanding of the leak and confidence it won't become more significant in flight, to removing the capsule from its Atlas V rocket and taking it back to a hangar for repairs.Read 21 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Space, atlas v, Boeing, commercial crew, human spaceflight, NASA, starliner, united launch alliance]

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[l] at 5/21/24 4:28pm
Enlarge / Trial participant Sherown Campbell manipulating a Rubik's Cube. (credit: UP-LIFT Trial) With a zap of electricity from well-placed electrodes on the back of the neck, patients with tetraplegia can regain some modest yet potentially "life-changing" functioning of their hands and arms, according to data from a small clinical trial published Monday in Nature Medicine. The relatively simple stimulation method—which requires no surgery—offers an accessible and more affordable non-invasive means for those living with paralysis to regain some meaningful function, the researchers behind the trial say. However, the therapy's further potential remains limited given that scientists have yet to fully understand exactly why it works. For the trial, 60 patients with tetraplegia underwent the stimulation therapy over at least 24 sessions during a two-month period. At the end, 72 percent (43 patients) saw clinically meaningful improvements in both strength and functional performance. Further, 90 percent (54 patients) saw improvement from at least one strength or functional outcome. There were no serious adverse events reported.Read 10 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Health, Science, ARM, hand, non-invasive, paralysis, quadriplegia, spinal cord, spinal cord injury, stimulator, tetraplegia]

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[l] at 5/21/24 3:30pm
Enlarge (credit: Yaorusheng) It doesn't take a lot of energy to dig up coal or pump oil from the ground. By contrast, most renewable sources of energy involve obtaining and refining resources, sophisticated manufacturing, and installation. So, at first glance, when it comes to the energy used to get more energy—the energy return on investment—fossil fuels seem like a clear winner. That has led some to argue that transitioning to renewables will create an overall drop in net energy production, which nobody is interested in seeing. A new study by researchers at the UK's University of Leeds, however, suggests that this isn't a concern at all—in most countries, renewables already produce more net energy than the fossil fuels they're displacing. The key to understanding why is that it's much easier to do useful things with electricity than it is with a hunk of coal or a glob of crude oil. Energy efficiency and utility The basic idea behind the new work is that while it's energetically cheap to extract fossil fuels, the stuff that comes out of the ground isn't ready to be put to use. There are energetic costs to making it into a useful form and transporting it to where it's needed, and then there is lost energy when it's being put to use. That's especially notable for uses like internal combustion engines, where significantly less than half of the energy available in gasoline actually gets converted into motion.Read 18 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Energy, green, green energy, renewable energy, sustainability]

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[l] at 5/21/24 2:08pm
Enlarge / SpaceX's fourth full-scale Starship rocket undergoes a fueling test Monday. (credit: SpaceX) After three test flights, SpaceX has shown that the world's most powerful rocket can reach space. Now, engineers must demonstrate the company's next-generation Starship vehicle can get back home. This will be the central objective for the fourth Starship test flight, which could happen as soon as early June, according to Elon Musk, SpaceX's founder and CEO. "Starship Flight 4 in about 2 weeks," Musk posted on X, his social media platform, following a Starship countdown rehearsal Monday at the Starship launch site in South Texas. "Primary goal is getting through max reentry heating."Read 26 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Space, artemis, Commercial space, human landing system, launch, NASA, orbital refueling, spacex, Starbase, starship, starship ift-4]

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[l] at 5/21/24 8:13am
Enlarge / Aftermath of a nova at the star GK Persei. (credit: NASA/CXC/RIKEN/STScI/NRAO/VLA) When you look at the northern sky, you can follow the arm of the Big Dipper as it arcs around toward the bright star called Arcturus. Roughly in the middle of that arc, you'll find the Northern Crown constellation, which looks a bit like a smiley face. Sometime between now and September, if you look to the left-hand side of the Northern Crown, what will look like a new star will shine for five days or so. This star system is called T. Coronae Borealis, also known as the Blaze Star, and most of the time, it is way too dim to be visible to the naked eye. But once roughly every 80 years, a violent thermonuclear explosion makes it over 10,000 times brighter. The last time it happened was in 1946, so now it’s our turn to see it. Neighborhood litterbug “The T. Coronae Borealis is a binary system. It is actually two stars,” said Gerard Van Belle, the director of science at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. One of these stars is a white dwarf, an old star that has already been through its fusion-powered lifecycle. “It’s gone from being a main sequence star to being a giant star. And in the case of giant stars, what happens is their outer parts eventually get kind of pushed into outer space. What’s left behind is a leftover core of the star—that’s called a white dwarf,” Van Belle explained.Read 11 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, astronomy, astrophysics, nova, white dwarf]

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[l] at 5/21/24 5:00am
Enlarge / Scientists have determined the system to be evidence of an ongoing merger of two galaxies and their massive black holes when the Universe was only 740 million years old. (credit: ESA/Webb, NASA, CSA et. al) Welcome to the Daily Telescope. There is a little too much darkness in this world and not enough light, a little too much pseudoscience and not enough science. We'll let other publications offer you a daily horoscope. At Ars Technica, we're going to take a different route, finding inspiration from very real images of a universe that is filled with stars and wonder. Good morning. It's May 21, and today's photo comes from the James Webb Space Telescope. It showcases the coming together of two massive black holes in the early Universe, just 740 million years after the Big Bang. Each of the black holes has an estimated mass of roughly 50 million times the mass of our star, the Sun. The discovery of this merger so early in the Universe indicates that the growth of these objects in the centers of galaxies occurred very rapidly.Read 4 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Space, daily telescope, space]

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[l] at 5/20/24 3:50pm
Enlarge (credit: Getty Images) If things work out as hoped, brain implants will ultimately restore communication for those who have become paralyzed due to injury or disease. But we're a long way from that future, and the implants are currently limited to testing in clinical trials. One of those clinical trials, based at the University of California, San Francisco, has now inadvertently revealed something about how the brain handles language, because one of the patients enrolled in the trial was bilingual, using English and Spanish. By tracking activity in the area of the brain where the intention to speak gets translated into control over the vocal tract, researchers found that both languages produce consistent signals in this area, so training the system to pick up English phrases would help improve its recognition of Spanish. Making some noise Understanding bilingualism is obviously useful for understanding how the brain handles language in general. The new paper describing the work also points out that restoring communications in multiple languages should be a goal for restoring communications to people. Bilingual people will often change languages based on different social situations or sometimes do so within a sentence in order to express themselves more clearly. They often describe bilingual abilities as a key component of their personalities.Read 16 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Biology, brain, brain implants, language, medicine, Neuroscience]

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[l] at 5/20/24 12:48pm
Enlarge / A Neuralink implant. (credit: Neuralink) Only about 15 percent of the electrode-bearing threads implanted in the brain of Neuralink's first human brain-chip patient continue to work properly, according to a report from The Wall Street Journal. The remaining 85 percent of the threads became displaced, and many of the threads that were left receiving little to no signals have been shut off. In a May 8 blog post, Neuralink had disclosed that "a number" of the chip's 64 thinner-than-hair threads had retracted. Each thread carries multiple electrodes, totaling 1,024 across the threads, which are surgically implanted near neurons of interest to record signals that can be decoded into intended actions. Neuralink was quick to note that it was able to adjust the algorithm used for decoding those neuronal signals to compensate for the lost electrode data. The adjustments were effective enough to regain and then exceed performance on at least one metric—the bits-per-second (BPS) rate used to measure how quickly and accurately a patient with an implant can control a computer cursor.Read 6 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Health, Science, brain chip, brain-computer interface, Elon Musk, nerualink, threads]

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[l] at 5/20/24 12:33pm
Enlarge / A 133-car coal train moves slowly as it's loaded at the Buckskin Coal Mine in 2006 in Gillette, Wyoming. (credit: Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images) This article originally appeared on Inside Climate News, a nonprofit, independent news organization that covers climate, energy, and the environment. It is republished with permission. Sign up for their newsletter here.  The Bureau of Land Management announced Thursday that it would no longer make federally managed lands in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin available for new coal mining leases, drawing condemnation from the fossil fuel industry in the region that produces the most coal in the country, but delivering a boon to the nation’s clean energy transition. The Powder River Basin, a geological formation that covers much of northeast Wyoming and a portion of southeast Montana, has been the nation’s largest source of coal for decades, with production there peaking in 2008. Since then, demand for coal has plummeted, largely due to the rise of natural gas and renewable energy. Taking federal coal off the table in the basin could all but put an expiration date on the nation’s thermal coal industry.Read 16 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Policy, Science, Bureau of Land Management, coal, fossil fuels, syndication]

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[l] at 5/20/24 11:16am
Enlarge / Ed Dwight, 90, exits Blue Origin's crew capsule Sunday after a 10-minute flight to the edge of space. (credit: Blue Origin) More than 60 years after he was denied an opportunity to become America's first Black astronaut, Ed Dwight finally traveled into space Sunday with five other passengers on a 10-minute flight inside a Blue Origin capsule. Dwight, a retired Air Force captain and test pilot, had a chance to become the first African American astronaut. He was one of 26 pilots the Air Force recommended to NASA for the third class of astronauts in 1963, but the agency didn't select him. It took another 20 years for America's first Black astronaut, Guion Bluford, to fly in space in 1983. “Everything they did, I did, and I did it well," Dwight said in a video released by Blue Origin. "If politics had changed, I would have gone to space in some kind of capacity.”Read 17 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, Space, blue origin, Commercial space, ed Dwight, human spaceflight, launch, new shepard, ns-25]

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[l] at 5/20/24 11:00am
Enlarge / Hurricane Dorian's satellite appearance on a Sunday morning in 2019. (credit: NOAA) Later this week, the US federal agency charged with weather forecasting will release its outlook for the 2024 Atlantic hurricane season at a news conference in Washington, DC. But we already know what the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) forecast will say: This year will likely be extremely active in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. The Atlantic season formally begins on June 1, and based on current trends, the first named storm may not develop until the middle of the month or later. But make no mistake—when the light switches on later this summer, the season is likely to be a blockbuster. Why? Because the oceans are screaming at us.Read 10 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, hurricane forecast]

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[l] at 5/20/24 10:23am
Enlarge / An oceangoing scientific drilling vessel may be needed to figure out how huge undersea aquifers formed. (credit: Credit: IODP) One-quarter of the world’s population is currently water-stressed, using up almost their entire fresh water supply each year. The UN predicts that by 2030, this will climb to two-thirds of the population. Freshwater is perhaps the world’s most essential resource, but climate change is enhancing its scarcity. An unexpected source may have the potential to provide some relief: offshore aquifers, giant undersea bodies of rock or sediment that hold and transport freshwater. But researchers don’t know how the water gets there, a question that needs to be resolved if we want to understand how to manage the water stored in them. For decades, scientists have known about an aquifer off the US East Coast. It stretches from Martha’s Vineyard to New Jersey and holds almost as much water as two Lake Ontarios. Research presented at the American Geophysical Union conference in December attempted to explain where the water came from—a key step in finding out where other undersea aquifers lie hidden around the world.Read 25 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, aquifers, Earth science, fresh water, geology, glaciers]

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[l] at 5/20/24 6:04am
Enlarge / SpaceX's Starship tower (left) at Launch Complex 39A dwarfs the launch pad for the Falcon 9 rocket (right). (credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani) There are a couple of ways to read the announcement from the Federal Aviation Administration that it's kicking off a new environmental review of SpaceX's plan to launch the most powerful rocket in the world from Florida. The FAA said on May 10 that it plans to develop an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for SpaceX's proposal to launch Starships from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The FAA ordered this review after SpaceX updated the regulatory agency on the projected Starship launch rate and the design of the ground infrastructure needed at Launch Complex 39A (LC-39A), the historic launch pad once used for Apollo and Space Shuttle missions. Dual environmental reviews At the same time, the US Space Force is overseeing a similar EIS for SpaceX's proposal to take over a launch pad at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, a few miles south of LC-39A. This launch pad, designated Space Launch Complex 37 (SLC-37), is available for use after United Launch Alliance's last Delta rocket lifted off there in April.Read 56 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Features, Science, Space, artemis, cape canaveral, Commercial space, Federal Aviation Administration, Kennedy Space Center, launch, launch complex 39a, NASA, spacex, starship]

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[l] at 5/18/24 5:31am
Enlarge (credit: SEAN GLADWELL) Unraveling how consciousness arises out of particular configurations of organic matter is a quest that has absorbed scientists and philosophers for ages. Now, with AI systems behaving in strikingly conscious-looking ways, it is more important than ever to get a handle on who and what is capable of experiencing life on a conscious level. As Christof Koch writes in Then I Am Myself the World, "That you are intimately acquainted with the way life feels is a brute fact about the world that cries out for an explanation." His explanation—bounded by the limits of current research and framed through Koch’s preferred theory of consciousness—is what he eloquently attempts to deliver. Koch, a physicist, neuroscientist, and former president of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, has spent his career hunting for the seat of consciousness, scouring the brain for physical footprints of subjective experience. It turns out that the posterior hot zone, a region in the back of the neocortex, is intricately connected to self-awareness and experiences of sound, sight, and touch. Dense networks of neocortical neurons in this area connect in a looped configuration; output signals feedback into input neurons, allowing the posterior hot zone to influence its own behavior. And herein, Koch claims, lies the key to consciousness. In the hot zone According to integrated information theory (IIT)—which Koch strongly favors over a multitude of contending theories of consciousness—the Rosetta Stone of subjective experience is the ability of a system to influence itself: to use its past state to affect its present state and its present state to influence its future state.Read 12 remaining paragraphs | Comments

[Category: Science, altered, consciousness, Neuroscience, psychedelics, psychology]

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