[*] [-] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/27/22 10:00am
Audio port protection discussed in this app note from Littlefuse. Link here (PDF) Externally generated ESD pulses are introduced through the Audio jacks (headphone, microphone, RCA-type plugs, etc.) and travel through the connector onto the system board. Once on the board, they will propagate down the signal lines toward the integrated circuits(IC). Most ICs are designed with 2,000V of internal ESD protection. It is not uncommon to measure ESD transients in consumer environments over 8,000V.Without sufficient protection, the Audio system can experience visual distortion or corrupted data. In addition, the IC could be permanently damaged rendering the whole system inoperable.

[Category: app notes, app note, audio protection, Littelfuse]

[*] [-] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/27/22 6:47am
App note from Littelfuse on protecting LED lights from overloaded circuits, overvoltage and electrical shorts assuring safety on customers from these hazards. Link here (PDF) LED technology has advanced rapidly, with improved chip designs and materials facilitating development of brighter and longer-lasting light sources that can be used in a wide spectrum of applications. A growing awareness of the need to reduce energy costs has also made LED lighting increasingly popular. In spite of the growing popularity of the technology, LED light manufacturers continue to wrestle with the fact that LED luminaires are very heat sensitive. Excessive heat or inappropriate applications can dramatically affect performance.

[Category: app notes, app note, led lighting, Littelfuse]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/20/22 10:00am
App note from Diodes Incorporated present you their solution to put a safeguard on your load from transients spikes and shorts, these load switch also do have monitoring pins in order to show the condition of the supply line. Link here (PDF) Single Channel Smart load switch provides a component and area-reducing solution for efficient power domain switching. In addition to integrated control functionality with ultra-low on resistance (<15 mΩ), this device offers system safeguards and monitoring via the fault protection (Short circuit protection, SCP) and power good signal. This cost effective solution is ideal for power management and hot-swap applications requiring low power consumption in a small footprint.

[Category: app notes, app note, diodes incorporated, load switch]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/13/22 10:00am
App note from Littelfuse about automotive electrical noises and where they came from and what to do with them in order to prevent it from going to your circuit. Link here (PDF) As the control circuitry in the automobile continues to develop, there is a greater need to consider the capability of new technology in terms of survivability to the commonly encountered transients in the automotive environment. The circuit designer must ensure reliable circuit operation in this severe transient environment. The transients on the automobile power supply range form the severe, high energy, transients generated by the alternator/regulator system to the low-level “noise” generated by the ignition system and various accessories.

[Category: app notes, app note, automotive, Littelfuse, noise]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/13/22 6:00am
App note from Littelfuse introduces you to their TVS options specifically fit to your circuit protection needs. Link here (PDF) Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) protection devices such as shielded cables, crowbars, filters and clamping devices have been widely used for a number of years to solve EMI problems. These TVS devices can be used to achieve higher EMI higher immunity levels without significantly adding to the cost and complexity of the circuit. The attributes of traditional TVS devices will be compared to the features of a relatively new option, the avalanche diode TVS EMI filter. Recent advancements in IC manufacturing technology provide the TVS diode with several technical and cost advantages compared to traditional EMI devices.

[Category: app notes, app note, Littelfuse, TVS]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/30/22 11:00am
Selecting the desired MOSFET fit for Buck-Boost for higher efficiency in power supply and battery charging section discussed in this app note from Alpha & Omega Semiconductors. Link here (PDF) The wide adoption of USB Type-C PD makes the notebook PC charger move to four MOSFET buck-boost charger topology to allow for wide range input voltage (5-20V). After a suitable controller is selected, the specified Power MOSFETs in buck-boost charger are essential for achieving higher efficiency and high-power density design. In this application note, we will only discuss the USB power delivery specification for an adapter supplying 5A/100W and expect the reader to understand the basic operation of buck-boost topology. It is critical to select suitable MOSFETs regarding efficiency, thermal, and space limitation, to meet the system-level requirements. 30V MOSFETs can be used for input voltage below 20V. Based on given wide input voltages, output voltages, and current, the designer must understand the tradeoff among the different loss mechanisms in the MOSFET. These MOSFET losses include: switching loss, conduction loss, and reverse recovery loss. Losses are minimized by selecting the best MOSFETs from its electrical characteristics.

[Category: app notes, alpha and omega semiconductor, app note, battery charger, Buck-boost converter]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/23/22 10:59am
Solid-state relays uses app note by Vishay in DC application with resistive, capacitive and inductive loads. Link here (PDF) A solid-state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device in semiconductor technology. An SSR has a high efficient GaAlAs infrared emitter on the input which is optically coupled to the high performance MOSFETs at the output. An SSR is capable of switching AC loads where both output MOSFETs are required as well as DC loads where one MOSFET, or two in parallel, can be used.

[Category: app notes, app note, solid state relay, vishay]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/16/22 11:00am
App note from NXP introducing their network solution TJA1101B to handle Ethernet in automotive environment. Link here (PDF) The TJA1101B is a 100BASE-T1 compliant Ethernet PHY optimized for automotive use cases. The device provides 100 Mbit/s transmit and receive capability over a single unshielded twisted pair cable, supporting a cable length of at least 15 m. Optimized for automotive use cases like IP camera links, driver assistance systems and back-bone networks, the TJA1101B has been designed for automotive robustness and ISO 26262 ASIL-A compliance, while minimizing power consumption and system costs.

[Category: app notes, app note, automotive, networking, NXP]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/9/22 11:00am
App note from Vishay which focuses on the diodes losses present during the forward and reverse condition. Link here (PDF) In the forward condition, diodes carry the current while showing the lowest resistance at the current flow (ON state) and the lowest possible voltage anode to cathode. In the reverse condition, the voltage anode to cathode across the diode is negative (OFF state) and the device is like an open circuit; the current flowing through the diode the leakage current is very small. The transition between the forward and reverse conditions is called recovery. Forward recovery is when a diode goes from the OFF state to the ON state. Reverse recovery is when a diode goes from the ON state to the OFF state. These transitions are associated with losses, known as switching losses. Usually, forward recovery losses are negligible; but reverse recovery losses particularly those in high frequency circuits can be a non-negligible portion of losses present in the diode.

[Category: app notes, app note, diode, Switching Power Supply, vishay]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/9/22 7:00am
App note from Vishay on their NTC thermistors, guiding you on the selection process to its application circuits. Link here (PDF)

[Category: app notes, app note, NTC thermistor, vishay]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/2/22 11:00am
App note from Analog Devices discussing bootstrapping its rail voltage to compensate operating range of an op amp. Link here (PDF) When an off the shelf operational amplifier (op amp) cannot provide the signal swing range needed for a particular application, the engineer is faced with using a high voltage op amp or designing a discrete solution—both choices being potentially costly avenues to solving the problem. A third option, bootstrapping, can be an inexpensive alternative to these approaches for many applications. A bootstrapped power supply circuit involves a fairly straight-forward design exercise in all but the most dynamic performance demanding applications.

[Category: app notes, Analog Devices, app note, Operational Amplifier]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/2/22 7:00am
App note from Analog Devices on ways to eliminate drifts on voltage refs. Link here (PDF) Long-Term Drift (LTD) in voltage references is a parameter that can be confusing and misleading. It is given as a typical parameter in data sheets, but can cause significant accuracy limitations in system. Unlike tempco and initial accuracy, where a one-time calibration can be used to eliminate these errors, attempts to reduce LTD requires frequent system calibration. This can be both time consuming and expensive. Therefore, it is important to understand the significance of LTD.

[Category: app notes, Analog Devices, app note, Voltage reference]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 9/25/22 11:00am
Compact buck converter design from ONSEMI an alternate solution for LDOs producing larger current. Link here (PDF) Low dropout, linear regulators, or LDOs, are typically used for post−regulation because they are easily implemented and provide a relatively noise−free power source. However, for higher currents, such as 1.0 A and above, LDOs take up a great deal of space and can dissipate too much power and thus heat. For low dropout applications where you need another voltage rail, and you already have a 5.0 V or 3.3 V rail, a simple PWM buck converter provides a more efficient choice than a linear regulator.

[Category: app notes, app note, buck converter, LDO, ON Semiconductors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 9/25/22 7:10am
Isolated precision SMPS design from ONSEMI. Link here (PDF) The following Application Note describes an off–line switching power supply utilizing a precision programmable reference to regulate a 1.8 volt output. The center of the app note is the MC33363B, a monolithic SMPS controller with a 700 volt power switch, and the NCP100, a sub–one volt precision programmable reference.

[Category: app notes, app note, ON Semiconductors, SMPS]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 9/18/22 11:00am
Great read on this white paper from Renesas about the history of USB power delivery. Link here (PDF) Connections between equipment for data transfer and power are being revolutionized by the adoption of ‘USB Power Delivery’, a version of USB that allows up to 100W to be passed in either direction. This white paper traces the history of the standard and its capabilities up to the present day with USB Type-C TM cables and connectors enabling ‘Superspeed’ communication while providing bi-directional power transfer for peripheral operation and battery charging. Practical advantages of USB Power Delivery are described along with the wider benefits of reduction in complexity and number of interconnections and their environmental impact. Integrated circuit solutions for the design of interfaces to control power flow are introduced.

[Category: app notes, app note, Renesas, USB Type C]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 9/18/22 7:08am
Coilcraftss app note on inductor and more to it than just inductance. Link here (PDF) There is more to selecting an inductor than the nominal inductance value. To ensure the inductor will perform as needed in a specific application, due consideration must be given to inductance tolerance, current ratings, DCR, maximum operating temperature and efficiency at specific operating conditions. Even the inductance value needs careful consideration, as inductance itself is dependent on frequency, temperature, and current.

[Category: app notes, app note, Coilcraft, inductors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 9/11/22 7:00am
Design tips from Richtek when sourcing/selecting parts for power supply. Link here The COVID pandemic has made it clear that the semiconductor supply chain is very sensitive to sudden changes in supply and demand, resulting in worldwide shortage of semiconductors in all fields, from consumer to automotive applications. Many company production lines had to reduce or even completely suspend their production due to lack of semiconductor components. As a result, these companies have been urgently trying to find alternatives for components in their designs. However, it is not always that simple to find alternatives for power management components: PCB layout may need to be changed, and several tests may have to be done before a new component can be introduced, while time pressure is huge due to possible production line stop. It can be a great benefit if multiple component sources are considered during the start of the design: at that time, pin compatible (P2P) parts can be selected, common component PCB footprints can be considered, and validation tests can be executed with multiple sources instead of a single source.

[Category: app notes, app note, component sourcing, power supply, Richtek]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 9/4/22 7:00am
App note from Richtek on their RT8487 compact buck-boost LED driver. Link here RT8487 is a boundary mode constant current controller with internal high side driver, which can be used in buck and buck-boost configuration, to provide a constant output current to the (LED) load. It contains special circuitry for achieving high power factor and low input current THD, while minimizing external component count. The small SOT23-6 package keeps application footprint small, and makes RT8487 a cost effective solution for off-line LED drivers.

[Category: app notes, app note, Buck-boost converter, LED driver, Richtek]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 8/28/22 11:00am
This evaluation board from Analog Devices features reliable and uninterruptible power supply for vehicle tracking system. Link here (PDF) A vehicle tracking system (VTS) is typically installed in cars and trucks. A VTS provides real-time information about the speed, location, and direction of the vehicle using technology, such as a global positioning system (GPS). For a VTS to work reliably, it needs to have a robust dc-to-dc power supply. A power supply must be designed to protect the system from common automotive fault conditions like load dump, cold crank, reverse polarity, and other potential destructive transients described in the ISO 7637-2 and ISO 16750-2 standards. In addition, in the absence of power coming from the vehicle, the system must be able to switch to the backup battery to ensure continuous operation. Ultimately, an automotive power supply must comply with automotive electromagnetic interference (EMI) standards, specifically CISPR 25.

[Category: app notes, Analog Devices, app note, automotive]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 8/28/22 7:00am
Application note from Analog Devices to calculate for inclination angle from a single, dual or triple-axis accelerometers. Link here (PDF) One common method for determining the tilt or inclination of a system is to integrate the output of a gyroscope. Although this method is straightforward, error associated with null bias stability can quickly compound as the integration period is increased, causing an apparent rotation even when the device is stationary. Inclination sensing uses the gravity vector and its projection on the axes of the accelerometer to determine the tilt angle. Because gravity is a dc acceleration, any forces that result in an additional dc acceleration corrupt the output signal and result in an incorrect calculation. Sources of dc acceleration include the period of time when a vehicle is accelerating at a constant rate and rotating devices that induce a centripetal acceleration on the accelerometer. In addition, rotating an accelerometer through gravity causes an apparent ac acceleration as the projection of gravity on the axes of interest changes.

[Category: app notes, accelerometer, Analog Devices, app note]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 8/21/22 11:00am
App note from Precision Microdrives on how to design drivers for vibration motors on battery powered mobile devices. Link here The mobile phone industry is a huge market in which vibration motors are an established component. Now almost every device has the ability to produce vibration alerts and the field of haptic feedback is rapidly moving forward. In this bulletin we outline some of the common problems cell phone manufacturers face and the electrical best practices to overcome them. Many of these problems and solutions are applicable to the majority of handheld devices which feature vibration functionality. For those looking to improve an existing product or add a vibration motor to a brand new creation, you may find here, some solutions to problems you have not yet considered, minimise their effects and increase performance.

[Category: app notes, app note, Precision microdrives, vibration motors]

As of 11/29/22 4:30am. Last new 11/27/22 10:04am.

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