[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 8/14/22 11:04am
Securing systems with cryptographic authentication device on boot discussed in this app note from Microchip/Atmel. Link here (PDF) Most systems that use programmable nonvolatile memory for their operating program whether it’s large or small can take advantage of a secure boot process. Secure boot is a method of ensuring that the operating program for a system is authorized, typically by the OEM that designed and built the system. By ensuring that the operating program is authentic, the OEM can prevent unpredictable system performance, safety or regulatory violations, excess warranty costs, lost revenue, and more.

[Category: app notes, app note, authentication, microchip]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 8/14/22 9:18am
App note from Microchip/Atmel on securing products with hardware level authentication chip. Link here (PDF) Companies are continuously searching for ways to protect property using various implementations of security; however the cost of implementation can drive companies away from effective hardware solutions to less secure software solutions. With the introduction of the AT88SA10HS/102S devices, affordable hardware security is now in reach and can provide exceptional protection for: Confidential file protection Embedded software anti-cloning Development system anti-cloning Media transmission encryption USB security dongles Securing wireless or other radio transmission nodes Authentication for data over power lines Physical access control Electronic lockers Hardware user authentication Consumable product authentication Battery authentication

[Category: app notes, app note, authentication, microchip]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 8/7/22 11:00am
A detailed design of an instrumentation amplifier found in this app note from Renesas. Link here (PDF) This application note describes some of the fine points of designing an instrumentation amplifier with op-amps. We will cover how to maintain good common-mode rejection and output signal linearity. In addition, we will explain various filters that can be integrated in the design to provide additional performance improvements.

[Category: app notes, app note, instrumentation, Operational Amplifier, Renesas]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 8/7/22 7:26am
App note from Renesas about building a guitar pedal overdrive effect using only 2 x AA instead of 9V battery, this app note demonstrate the low rail to rail voltage OpAmp SLG88104V in use. Link here (PDF) Amplified guitars appeared in the early 1930s. However, at that time early recording artists strove for clean orchestra type sounds. By the 40s DeArmond manufactured the worlds first standalone effect. But at that time amplifiers were valve based and bulky. During the 40s and through to the 50s even though clean tones were prevalent, competitive individuals and bands frequently turned their amps volume up to overdrive status and the distortion sound became increasingly popular. In the 60s transistor amplifiers started to be manufactured with the Vox T-60, in 1964 and around the same era to further preserve the distortion sound which was very sought after at that time the first distortion effect was born.

[Category: app notes, app note, effects stompbox, Operational Amplifier, Renesas]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 7/31/22 8:56am
App note from Renesas on what are digitally controlled potentiometers and their operations. Link here (PDF) Digitally Controlled Potentiometers (DCPs) brought about a new way to adjust resistance in analog circuitry. Mechanical Potentiometers were replaced by DCPs because of their ability to control resistance digitally using interfaces such as I2C, SPI, Pushbutton, 2-wire, and 3-wire (up/down). Unlike mechanical potentiometers where resistance is set by hand or a tool, the resistance of a DCP is communicated by an interface. This interface receives a value that is translated by the decoder from a binary to a decimal number, which sets the wiper into a corresponding position.

[Category: app notes, app note, digital potentiometers, Renesas]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 7/17/22 11:00am
An app note from Microchip about two basic ways of getting power from AC outlet to power small circuits and microcontrollers, these involves hazard too due to non-isolation from mains but rewards cost effectivity. Link here (PDF) There are several ways to convert an AC voltage at a wall receptacle into the DC voltage required by a microcontroller. Traditionally, this has been done with a transformer and rectifier circuit. There are also switching power supply solutions, however, in applications that involve providing a DC voltage to only the microcontroller and a few other low-current devices, transformer-based or switcher-based power supplies may not be cost effective. The reason is that the transformers in transformer-based solutions, and the inductor/MOSFET/controller in switch-based solutions, are expensive and take up a considerable amount of space. This is especially true in the appliance market, where the cost and size of the components surrounding the power supply may be significantly less than the cost of the power supply alone.

[Category: app notes, app note, microchip, power supply]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 7/17/22 8:31am
App note from Microchip about wireless multi-speaker connectivity solution. Link here (PDF) Microchip’s Multi-Speaker Bluetooth Audio solution utilizes Microchip proprietary technology to connect a master speaker to one or multiple slave speakers through a modified Bluetooth protocol. Multi-speaker functionality is implemented using Microchip’s BM6x family of modules. One (master) speaker can either be connected to an audio streaming Bluetooth device (smartphone, tablet, laptop, etc.) or its own auxiliary input (AUX/LINE-In jack), and re-transmit either of the two audio sources to one or more speakers acting as a slave.

[Category: app notes, app note, audio, bluetooth, microchip, wireless]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 7/10/22 11:00am
App note about end device security from Maxim Integrated, by adding DS28E40 Deep Cover 1-Wire authenticator to keep the system devices in-check. Link here The increasing electronic content in vehicles presents new attack surfaces to hackers. Digital authentication can reduce the risk of theft and counterfeiting of genuine and approved components. In mission-critical automotive applications, such as advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) and electric vehicle (EV) batteries, low-quality counterfeits can introduce safety risks if their performance is degraded, compared with approved components. On the other hand, stolen components may not be calibrated to operate properly after installation in a different vehicle. By adding a single authentication IC, designers can authenticate a component with only one signal between an electronic control unit (ECU) and endpoint component. Endpoints that can benefit from authentication cover a broad range of applications in vehicles, such as optical cameras, headlamps, EV batteries, occupancy sensors, and even steering wheels, just to name a few.

[Category: app notes, app note, automotive, MAXIM integrated, security]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 7/10/22 7:00am
App note from Maxim Integrated which introduces their buffer op-amp designed for wearable sensors on medical monitoring. Link here The use of wearable sensors for fitness and health monitoring is growing tremendously. Over the past decade, wearable technology has gained much attention from the tech industry for commercial reasons and has generated interest of physicians due to its potential benefits in the health of their patients. Wearable devices use biomedical sensors to monitor not only activity parameters such as step count or walking/running speed or elevation, but also physiological parameters such as heart electrical activities or blood pressure.

[Category: app notes, app note, MAXIM integrated, medical, wearable]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 7/3/22 7:00am
A study and actual test using LTS (Low Temperature Soldering) on SMT devices from Nexperia. Link here (PDF) New generation Low Temperature Solder (LTS) pastes for Surface Mount Technology (SMT) is proposed for low temperature applications such as computing. LTS pastes are commonly build on near-eutectic SnBi alloying system and therefore show reduced melting temperatures which reduces the reflow temperatures as well as the energy consumption during SMT by up to 40%. This translates into reduced CO2 emissions and reduced manufacturing cost. Additionally, such effect can improve the yield impact created by high temperature (HT) warpage. HT warpage is widely recognized seen as main driver to reduce the reflow temperature for SMT. New product markets such as ultra-mobile computing and the Internet of Things (IoT) drive the need for smaller and thinner packages and boards which can suffer warpage by reflow temperatures of current solder systems like SAC. By lowering the peak temperature during reflow, warpage is reduced, resulting in higher SMT yields.

[Category: app notes, app note, nexperia, SMD soldering]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 6/26/22 11:00am
Introduction and application of resistor equipped transistors from Nexperia. Link here (PDF) Bipolar transistors are controlled via the base current applied. Because of high temperature dependency of the voltage drop across the base-emitter path, it is required to add at least a series resistors at the base for stable and safe operation of a transistor in most applications This is required to keep base current at a desired level. To reduce the number of components and to make board designs less complex, Resistor-Equipped Transistors (RET) have been introduced. These are single or dual transistors with resistors integrated on the same die. The integrated resistors have higher tolerances than commonly used external resistors. This fact makes RETs most suitable for switching applications where the transistor operates either in on-state or off-state. This is the reason also, why RETs are often referred to as digital transistors.

[Category: app notes, app note, nexperia, transistors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 6/26/22 7:06am
Nexperias app note presenting ideas to protect USB port on devices. Link here (PDF) This application note describes a complete solution for battery charging in mobile devices. This includes how to charge a Li-Ion battery with typical battery charger topologies, particularly with external bypass transistors and ways to effectively protect against overvoltage and overcurrent from the charger connector.

[Category: app notes, app note, nexperia, USB]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 6/19/22 11:00am
Simple discrete LED driver application from Nexperia. Link here (PDF) This application note describes a 300 mA discrete LED driver, based on a buck-converter principle, with a cycle-by-cycle current control. It includes a proposal for a BOM and layout of a low cost, low component count solution. Key applications for the driver are lighting applications, where constant LED brightness, high efficiency and low cost are important features. For example, automotive lighting applications require that general illumination and signage should not consume too much power when the motor is not running. The input voltage of +6 V to +18 V supports automotive requirements, too. Additionally, battery driven handhelds such as flashlights or headlamps will benefit from the topology and efficiency the driver delivers.

[Category: app notes, app note, LED driver reference design, nexperia]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 6/19/22 9:19am
App note from Nexperia about MOSFET characteristics in linear mode within their SOA. Link here (PDF) Power MOSFETs are extensively used as switches due to the very low RDSon and thus low conduction losses. However, in many applications MOSFETs are used in their saturated state, with certain cases requiring both these modes to be robust and performant within the same device.

[Category: app notes, app note, MOSFET, nexperia]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 6/5/22 9:00am
This app note from Bourns presents improvement in efficiency and reduce thermal rise using Litz wire for multi-output flyback transformers. Link here (PDF) Flyback transformers are a robust, highly efficient and versatile option for AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies. Their wide input voltage range makes them an optimal choice for multiple designs while their use of minimal additional components makes them a cost-effective power conversion solution. Typically, flyback converter applications offer power levels up to 100 W allowing flyback transformers to be used for battery charger applications in EV (Electric Vehicle) and industrial ESS (Energy Storage System) solutions. It is important that the size of the transformer be minimized in a power supply design as it is usually the biggest component on the PCB. However, minimizing the size of the transformer can lead to increased winding and core losses. A plus with flyback transformers is that they often offer multiple outputs, which can boost efficiency and provide more design flexibility. Conversely, this benefit can make it hard for the designer to minimize the size of the transformer while also balancing winding losses. Litz wire is becoming more and more popular for flyback transformers as it can reduce power loss and boost power efficiencies. Litz wire is constructed using multiple fine wires that are woven together to replicate a typical copper wire. The benefit of Litz wire is that by having multiple conductors bunched together, the skin effect is greatly reduced. Reducing the skin effect has been shown to reduce AC resistance and boost the efficiency of power conversion designs.

[Category: app notes, app note, Bourns, DC-DC, transformer]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 6/5/22 8:00am
An app note from Bourns on their high voltage isolation magnetics to monitor large energy storages. Link here (PDF) Energy storage systems are emerging as one of the potential solutions to increase system flexibility due to their unique capability to quickly absorb, hold and then reinject electricity. Over the last few years, DC voltages in energy storage systems have continued to advance higher using lithium-ion battery technology. Today, 250 VDC, 600 VDC, 1000 VDC and now even 1500 VDC are employed. One of the key drivers of these higher-voltage systems is the availability of advanced solar inverters and power converters. Considering that most utility-scale battery energy storage systems are now being deployed alongside utility scale solar installations, it makes sense that the battery systems match the input DC voltages of the inverters and converters. Most utilityscale solar inverters and converters now use 1500 VDC input from solar panels. This application note covers the higher voltages, features and capabilities required for magnetic components to connect various sources of energy to an electricity grid that uses battery storage in order to maximize efficiencies. It also provides the insulation requirements designers should be aware of in specifying transformers rated to 1500 V.

[Category: app notes, app note, battery monitor, Bourns]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/29/22 11:00am
This app note from Maxim Integrated describes the design and system challenges associated with USB chargers in automotive applications. Link here Recent advancements in the automotive infotainment market demand high-efficiency and low-footprint power delivery (PD) solutions. The inclination towards a reduction in bill of materials has driven USB power applications to integrate more features and responsibilities into a single IC. The proliferation of battery-powered portable devices has resulted in an increase in the number of USB receptacles or ports in an automobile to charge the batteries of the devices.

[Category: app notes, app note, automotive, MAXIM integrated, USB-C]

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[l] at 5/29/22 7:46am
App note from Maxim Integrated bringing you back to loop theory to understand loop compensation in a DC-DC converter. Link here In our life, control systems are everywhere, whether it be an air conditioner that controls room temperature, a driver that controls car direction, or an appliance that controls the cooking of dumplings. Control refers to the operation of a certain device or a certain physical aspect of the production process. It helps achieve a certain variable which maintains a constant or moves according to a trajectory along a preset dynamic process. Usually, systems in nature are nonlinear, but small processes are also considered linear systems. When discussing an electrical circuit, we can consider this technology as a linear system. A system that has automatic control is a closed-loop system, while the opposite is an open-loop system. The characteristic of an open-loop system is that the output signal does not affect the input signal.

[Category: app notes, app note, DC-DC converter, MAXIM integrated]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/22/22 11:47am
Tips from Bourns on using trimming potentiometers. Link here (PDF) Potentiometers normally have a small region at the extreme ends of the adjustment range where the output is irregular. This can be seen when there is a sudden drop to essentially zero resistance. Alternatively, the change in output will stop at some small residual value of resistance, depending on the design of the trimmer. Although this unstable region is usually less than 1 % or 2 % of the total range of adjustment, it is important to remember to make allowances for avoiding it in your applications.

[Category: app notes, app note, Bourns, trimpots]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 5/22/22 7:17am
App note from Precision Microdrives experimenting on which is the best method to waterproof their vibration motors. Link here We have mentioned some interesting vibration motor applications which may benefit from being waterproof or water resistant. For example, performance indicators for athletes, or stroke rehabilitation gloves would require regular cleaning. Naturally, the most convenient method for cleaning clothes and garments would be through a washing machine, and removing several vibration motors to do so, isn’t particularly pragmatic. So we decided to look at some of our vibration motors and see if it would be possible to make them waterproof using fairly simple and easily implemented methods. This means that this Application Bulletin will differ slightly from our normal instalments which are full of industry best practices and advice. Instead, this is a more a report of an experimental/investigative process, in which we conclude with tips from our experiences, should you wish to try it yourself.

[Category: app notes, app note, Precision Mircodrives, vibration motors, waterproofing]

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[l] at 5/15/22 7:30am
App note from Vishay about their resistors with special wire termination which are used in automotive application such as sensors for engine knock , crankshaft and liquid level. Link here (PDF) As the electronic contents in automobiles are growing, there is increasing demand of electronic assemblies, such as sensors, to meet specific application requirements. The overall sensor market is driven by an increased need for safety, reliability, efficiency, comfort, and protection from harsh environment. Vishay Draloric / Beyschlag offers the MBA/SMA 0204 metal film resistors with special wire terminations, which can be either welded or soldered. Traditionally, the resistors are used on the PCB. However, sensor applications require welding or soldering of resistors on lead frames. The special termination wire material includes coppered steel (FeCu), nickel (Ni), and coppered silver (CuAg). These resistors also exhibit superior TCR for such under the hood (high temperature) applications, excellent long term stability under harsh operating conditions, mechanical robustness in terms of high tensile strength, and high electrical conductivity of the special wires.

[Category: app notes, app note, automotive, sensors, vishay]

As of 8/19/22 2:56pm. Last new 8/14/22 11:34am.

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