[*] [-] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 1/16/22 10:00am
Old app note from ONSEMI but still a good reference when designing with high speed CMOS devices. Link here (PDF) Unlike low-power, metal-gate CMOS, high-speed 54HC/74HC devices readily drive long cable runs and backplanes. While the family maintains CMOS’s traditional noise immunity, you must watch transmission-line effects in such applications.

[Category: app notes, app note, CMOS, ON Semiconductors, PCB design guidelines]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 1/16/22 6:00am
Helpful app note from ONSEMI that will guide you to their IGBT parameters. Link here (PDF) The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor is a power switch well suited for high power applications such as motor control, UPS and solar inverters, and induction heating. If the application requirements are well understood, the correct IGBT can easily be selected from the electrical properties provided in the manufacturers’ datasheet.

[Category: app notes, app note, IGBT, ON Semiconductors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 1/9/22 10:00am
App note from ONSEMI about their high side SmartFETs and their specific application. Link here (PDF) The “end requirement” from a high side SmartFET is to switch loads, and there are different alternatives, available in market, towards that end. Relays, for instance, have been used for long in the industry to switch various automotive loads, especially those requiring high current activation. With a continual reduction in the weight and size of automotive components and assemblies, there has been an evident transition from relays to semiconductor switches that take up less area and also offer improved noise immunity and lower electromagnetic interference as compared to relays.

[Category: app notes, app note, MOSFET, ONSEMI]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 1/9/22 6:00am
Wide input voltage is a specialty of this type of DC-DC converter, heres an app note from ON Semiconductors on SEPIC converters. Link here (PDF) The single−ended primary−inductor converter (SEPIC) is a type of DC/DC converter that allows the electrical potential (voltage) at its output to be greater than, less than, or equal to that at its input. Like other DC−DC switch−mode power supply converters, the SEPIC exchanges energy between inductors and capacitors to convert from one voltage to another voltage. Typical applications for a SEPIC regulator are: • Battery−operated equipment and handheld devices • NiMH chargers • LED lighting applications • DC power supplies having a wide range of input voltages

[Category: app notes, app note, DC-DC converter, ON Semiconductors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 1/2/22 10:00am
App note from ROHM Semiconductor about their shunt resistor mounting designs to keep heat away. Link here (PDF) Shunt resistors are widely used for current sensing in automotive and industrial applications. In the automotive sector, as vehicles become more complex and the number of motors and ECUs grows, applications need to be configured in a limited space. As a result, components are being mounted more intensively and customers require shunt resistors one of the components mounted on vehicles that are more power efficient and compact. Accordingly, the thermal design of products and circuit boards has become an important issue.

[Category: app notes, app note, Current sense, PCB design, ROHM, shunt resistor]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 1/2/22 6:47am
App note from ROHM Semiconductor on the importance of sense trace/line arrangement on PCB designs. Link here (PDF) While resistance, power rating and size are important considerations when using shunt resistors, tolerances that affect the accuracy of the detected voltage must also be considered. These tolerances include the temperature coefficient of resistance and the tolerance of resistance at room temperature. The temperature coefficient of resistance indicates the change in resistance value due to a change in temperature of the resistor. Since resistance is affected by component temperature rise as current flows through and power is consumed, and ambient temperature changes, the temperature coefficient of resistance is an important factor in accurately detecting current values.

[Category: app notes, app note, Current sense, PCB design, ROHM]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/31/21 10:44pm
Happy New Year! Thank you for reading the blog and being part of our community in 2021! We’re looking forward to more open hardware projects, more how-tos, more videos, more free PCBs, and more hacking in 2022.

[Category: Holiday]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/26/21 10:00am
Another app note from ROHM Semiconductor on various capacitors used for output smoothing. Link here (PDF) In recent years, it has become a common practice to recommend multilayer ceramic capacitors for the output smoothing of switching regulators due to the stability of their temperature characteristics and the reduction on the mounting area. On the other hand, they are increasingly being replaced by low-cost, high-capacity aluminum electrolytic capacitors and conductive polymer hybrid aluminum electrolytic capacitors.

[Category: app notes, app note, capacitors, DC-DC converter, ROHM]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/26/21 7:54am
A novel inverter design by ROHM and Power assist technology. Link here (PDF) We employ trans-linked interleaved circuits as inverter circuits that utilize the high frequency switching performance of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET, achieving a power conversion efficiency of 99% or more at 5 kW. Since this circuit topology allows a reduction in the inductance of the smoothing reactor, the high efficiency is achieved by reducing the number of windings of the reactor to dramatically reduce the copper loss. This document introduces an example of this novel inverter design.

[Category: app notes, app note, IGBT, inverter, ROHM, SiC MOSFETs]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/25/21 4:06am
Merry Christmas and Happy Holidays to all. May you find many PCBs and other electronics wizardry under your tree or pole. Remember, support is available on Christmas. Just give us a shout in the forum.

[Category: Holiday, christmas, holiday]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/19/21 10:00am
App note from AVX covering ideal connectors used on industrial applications. Link here (PDF) Connectors used in industrial and solid-state lighting applications pose uniquely challenging design constraints on power density and form-factor while simultaneously demanding the highest reliability under harsh environmental conditions. As a designer in these spaces, one cannot simply prioritize piece cost in the connector selection process. The true value of a connector is much more nuanced and must include the amortized costs of manufacturability, reliability, and safety. Eliminating hand soldering, ease of use, and good yield are not free. Avoiding field failures and product recalls are not free. Regulatory compliance is not free. To best address these hidden costs, designers should choose connectors from suppliers that have already engineered them out.

[Category: app notes, app note, AVX, connectors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/19/21 6:29am
App note from AVX about MLCC, Tantalum, Tantalum Polymer and Supercapacitors. Link here (PDF) Tantalum, MLCC, and super capacitor technologies are ideal for many energy storage applications because of their high capacitance capability. These capacitors have drastically different electrical and environmental responses that are sometimes not explicit on datasheets or requires additional knowledge of the properties of materials used, to select the best solution for a given design.

[Category: app notes, app note, AVX, capacitors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/12/21 10:26am
App note from NXP Semiconductors helping you to use cheap OLED panels found on Taobao or Amazon to interface with their LPC5500 series micro using U8g2 graphics library. Link here (PDF) The LPC5500 is an Arm® Cortex®-M33 based microcontroller for embedded applications. There are many 128 × 64 resolution OLED panel modules on the market and they are very easy to purchase. U8g2 is a monochrome graphics library for embedded devices. U8g2 supports monochrome OLEDs and LCDs.

[Category: app notes, app note, NXP Semiconductors, OLED, SSD1306]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/5/21 10:00am
App note from Precision Microdrives on new brushless motor design and how to drive them efficiently. Link here For a long time, all motors driven by DC supplies relied on using metal or carbon brushes to provide electrical power to the motor’s internal components. Meanwhile, in larger motor designs it has also been possible for over 100 years to create a rotating motor without using brushes, by using an AC power supply. In using the same design as traditional 3-phase AC motors, the problem with using ‘brushless motors’ powered from a DC source, was not the motor itself, but the driver. It wasn’t until digital signal processing and highly integrated circuits arrived, that driving brushless motors powered from a DC source became feasible. These brushless motors tend to be more efficient, but the major benefit is the extended lifetime. This means they are popular in products that require prolonged or constant rotation. In the past, DC brushless motors have been used devices such as VCRs, printers and hard disk drives. High time, therefore, to apply the reliability of brushless motors to vibration applications. In particular, fields like mechanical aid can require constant vibration to aid the flow of, for example, medicine pills through a chute. A well made brushed vibration motor may last up to a thousand hours or more, which is more than enough for a handheld product that rarely vibrates in short bursts. But when constantly running rates this would require a motor change every 5~6 weeks

[Category: app notes, app note, brushless motor, Precision microdrives, vibration motors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 12/5/21 6:39am
App note from Precision Microdrives helping you model DC motors in SPICE. Link here SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) is an open-source program for simulating electrical circuits. It enables engineers to model the behaviour of their circuits in software, which reduces prototyping costs and time. As DC motors have mechanical properties – i.e. they cannot be simulated accurately only considering electrical properties – it can be difficult to use them in SPICE. This Application Bulletin guides you through the principle of operation and extends the DC motor model for vibration motors and gear motors.

[Category: app notes, app note, DC motor, Precision microdrives, SPICE]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/21/21 10:00am
App note from STMicroelectronics. Link here (PDF) This application note explains how to extend the common input voltage range of a standard operational amplifier (op amp) to realize a high-side current sensing.

[Category: app notes, app note, Current sense, STMicroelectronics]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/21/21 6:55am
App note from STMicroelectronics about comparators and their limitations, also info on substitution depending on the application. Link here (PDF) After operational amplifiers (op amps), comparators are the most generally used analog, simple integrated circuits. Operational amplifiers are well described in many publications and a lot of information can be found regarding the design and proper use of these devices. On the other hand, information concerning comparators is much harder to find as they are often considered as simple devices.

[Category: app notes, app note, comparators, STMicroelectronics]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 11/14/21 11:39am
App note from Vishay about how modern power inductors are made and their performance. Link here (PDF) Power inductors are typically used for energy storage in DC/DC converters or high current noise filter applications, including motor speed control, adjustable lighting, DC power conditioning, and more. Power inductors can be divided further into two groups shielded and unshielded. Unshielded power inductors have an open magnetic circuit where the magnetic flux induced in the core by the current in the winding exits the core and extends through the air to the other side of the core where it completes the flux path.

[Category: app notes, app note, inductors, vishay]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/24/21 11:00am
App note from Coilcraft on how inductors where used for solving RF isolation issues. Link here (PDF) Many consumer products communicate with each other over broadband networks. From television to fiber transmission networks, the bandwidth of data communication is increasing, and the integrity of RF signals has become a major design concern. This paper provides examples of how different inductors can be used for RF isolation in a range of circuits from relatively narrow band applications like portable devices up to broadband networks for data distribution. The different types of inductors used in these applications are identified and discussed.

[Category: app notes, app note, Coilcraft, inductors, RF]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/24/21 8:23am
App note from Coilcraft on determining the self resonant of an inductor and how to compare them to other identical inductors. Link here (PDF) When comparing published electrical values, engineers require a common basis for comparison. Ideally, a 100 nH inductor with a self resonant frequency (SRF) of 1 GHz from one manufacturer is equivalent to inductors with the same published values from every other manufacturer. Realistically, however, the test instrument and fixture affect the SRF measurement. Since all manufacturers do not use the same instruments and fixtures, not all published SRF specifications are equivalent, which makes inductor comparisons difficult.

[Category: app notes, app note, Coilcraft, inductors]

[*] [+] [-] [x] [A+] [a-]  
[l] at 10/17/21 11:00am
Conserve power on using accelerometers with the help of this app note from Kionix by shutting it down on specific operating duty cycle. Link here (PDF) Kionix tri-axis accelerometers feature a power shutdown capability. Even with their typically low current draw, there are still applications that may require even less power consumption. For these applications, it is possible to implement a duty-cycle powerreduction methodology that uses a microprocessor to toggle the Enable/Disable pin or register at a specified duty-cycle. This approach can reduce greatly the accelerometer’s current draw during the majority of its time in operation. This application note provides the theory and equations needed to take full advantage of this power saving capability.

[Category: app notes, accelerometer, app note, Kionix]

As of 1/21/22 10:39am. Last new 1/16/22 10:58am.

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